|daedalian -- intelligent, crafty, deft, practical; pertaining to Daedalus.
daffydowndilly -- variant of daffadowndilly; a daffodil. Hardy, mostly spring-flowering bulbs in the amaryllis family native to Europe, North Africa,
and Asia; nacissus. "Strow me the ground with daffadowndillies, And cowslips, and kingcups, and loved lilies" (Spenser). (See picture.)
DAIs -- see diffuse axonal injuries.
daily news flash -- brief written news of the day posted for families.
daily value (DV) -- a term the FDA has proposed to replace the USDA RDA values in the new nutrition food labels.
dalliance -- flirtation; dawdling; procrastination; frivolous action.
dance of anger -- Lerner's metaphor to describe styles of managing anger and ways in which these styles interact.
dander -- dandruff; minute scales from hair, feathers, or skin that may be allergenic; anger; temper.
Dandy Walker syndrome -- A congenital brain malformation that involves the cerebellum. Characteristics: enlargement of the fourth
ventricle in the brain, or partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis and/or corpus callosum. Symptoms generally occur in early
infancy and include slow motor development and enlargement of the skull, irritability, vomiting, seizures, unsteadiness, lack of muscle
coordination, jerky movements of the eyes, increased head circumference, bulging at the back of the skull, nerve problems that control the eyes,
face, and neck, and abnormal breathing patterns, malformations of the heart, face, limbs, fingers, and toes. Cause unknown. A cause of
danseur -- ballet dancer.
daphnean -- shy, timid, demure, modest, bashful.
dapple -- a spot or mottled marking, usually occurring in clusters; different tones and hues.
darling -- a dearly loved person; favorite.
darmstadtium -- atomic number 110; symbol Ds; once called ununnilium; an artificially produced radioactive element first produced by bombarding lead atoms with nickel atoms; discovered
in 1987 by Organessian et al.
dastardly -- cowardly and malicious; base; lacking courage; ignobly timid and faint-hearted.
data collection -- information collected to determine if an intervention or teaching strategy is effective and/or to learn more about a behavior.
dawn -- daybreak, first light of day; the onset of an idea; enlightenment.
daycare provider -- a person who supervises children younger than school age (less than 5 or 6 years old).
day treatment program -- special school for students with emotional and behavior disorders that includes small classes with a strong emphasis on individual instruction, individual and
group therapy, family counseling, vocational training, crisis intervention, and social skill building.
dB -- see decibel.
DDH -- see developmental dislocation of the hip.
deadbeat dads -- fathers who don't meet their court-ordered child-support responsibilities. (See magazine cover.)
deadpan -- a blank, expressionless face; a person, especially a performer, who has or assumes a blank expression; with a deliberately emotionless face.
Deaf -- membership in the Deaf community, adherence to Deaf culture, and use of American Sign Language as the primary means of communication.
deaf -- a term used to describe individuals who have hearing losses greater than 75 to 80 dB, have vision as their primary input, and cannot understand
speech through the ear. According to IDEA, deaf is defined as hearing loss so severe that the student has difficulty processing linguistic information through
hearing (with or without amplification) and that adversely affects educational performance.
deaf-blindness -- a dual disability of deafness and blindness; one of the categories of IDEA. The IDEA definition is concomitant hearing and vision impairments, the combination of
which causes such severe communication and other developmental educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with
deafness or children with blindness.
deaf-blind manual alphabet -- signed into the person's right hand.
deaf community -- the lives and activities of a group of people who have shared experiences relating to deafness and who use American
Sign Language as their primary means of communication.
Deaf Culture -- a culture wherein people who are deaf become bonded together by a common language (ASL) and by shared customs and
heritage. People in the Deaf Culture seek each other out for social interaction and emotional support. (See example.)
deafness -- A disability category of IDEA which describes individuals who have hearing loss greater than 75 to 85 decibels, have vision as
their main primary input, and cannot understand speech through the ear. A hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired
in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, and that adversely affects a child's educational
performance and advancement.
deaf -- Hearing loss that is so severe that the student has difficulty processing linguistic information through hearing
(with or without amplification) and that adversely affects educational performance.
death instinct (death drive) -- Freud: should actually be translated "death drive." A fundamental tendency for life to seek the perfect
equilibrium of entropic non-activity -- in other words, dissolution. "The goal of life is death." See Thanatos.
debacle -- a tumultuous breakup of ice in a river; a violent disruption (as of an army); rout; a great disaster; a complete failure; fiasco.
debridement -- the removal of dead tissue (e.g., after a burn or infection).
debriefing conversations -- talks in which partners tell each other about the events they experienced while separated during the day.
débusquer (day-bu-skay) -- to hunt something or someone from its/his/her hiding place.
decenniel census -- a census of the population collected every 10 years.
decenter -- separate the sound of the word from its referent or meaning.
decentration -- the ability to focus on several aspects of a problem at once and then relating them (Piaget).
deception in social research -- the practice of concealing or lying about the purposes of a study.
decibel (dB) -- the unit of measure of sound intensity on a scale beginning at 0 which is the faintest sound a person with normal hearing can detect.
decidophobia -- fear of making decisions.
deciduous teeth -- describes baby teeth, which are shed, starting at about age 5; also called baby teeth or primary teeth. (See picture.)
decimetric week -- one consisting of 10 days, with a day of rest, a day of play, and a day of shopping, in addition to the original 7 days. There
would be three 10 day weeks per month.
declension -- noun, adjective, or pronoun inflection especially in some prescribed order of the forms; a class of nouns or adjectives having the
same type of inflectional forms; a falling off or away; deterioration; descent, slope.
declivity -- downward inclination; a descending slope.
decoding -- in language development, the process of making sense out of printed words or letters.
DEC recommended practices -- the practices recommended by the Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, for early intervention and early childhood
special education for young children with special needs.
decrescendo -- gradual lowering of tempo in music or in a situation.
decry -- to depreciate (as a coin) officially or publicly; to express strong disapproval of.
decubitus ulcers -- bed sores.
deductive argument -- type of valid argument whereby if the premises are true, then the conclusions are true, also.
deductive methods -- research methods in which conclusions are derived by reasoning rather than by data gathering.
deductive reasoning -- form of thinking in which one draws a conclusion that logically follows two or more statements.
deem -- to come to think or judge; consider; to have an opinion; believe.
deep-six -- to get rid of; discard, eliminate; to throw overboard.
deep tendon reflex -- a brisk contraction of a muscle in response to a sudden stretch induced by a sharp tap by a finger or rubber hammer on the tendon of insertion into the muscle.
Absence of this reflex may be caused by damage to the muscle, peripheral nerve, nerve roots, or spinal cord at that level. A hyperactive reflex may indicate disease of the pyramidal
tract above the level of the reflex arc being tested.
de facto marriage -- see common law marriage.
defecalgesiophobia -- fear of painful defecation.
defectology -- transliteration of defektologii, the Russian term for the scientific study of children with disabilities, or abnormal child development.
defenestration -- a throwing of a person or thing out of a window; a usually swift dismissal or expulsion (as from a political party or office).
defense mechanisms -- unconscious methods for denying, excusing, disguising, or changing the behaviors that cause anxiety and frustration. Freud. A maneuver employed by the ego
to protect itself against anxiety raised by intolerable impulses. All involve some degree of repression of the unacceptable impulse into unconsciousness. Examples include denial,
idealization, splitting (e.g., both loving and hating someone but keeping both emotions very separate), reaction formation (e.g., becoming a Scoutmaster to prove to yourself that you
don't hate children), undoing (basically, trying to repair an action for which you feel guilty), and an American favorite, intellectualization ("You ask me how I feel, and it seems to me that
the relevancy of the issue has more to do with my sublimated urge to ..." blah blah). Freud's daughter Anna discovered some more, perhaps because being analyzed by your father makes
them so necessary to have handy.
Defense of Marriage Act -- a federal law passed in 1996 which stipulates that no state can be forced to recognize a same-sex marriage that was formed in another state.
defenses -- Rogers: if a person feels an incongruity between what he/ she pictures as their ideal self and his/her immediate experience of his/ herself, then that person is in a threatening
situation. The result is anxiety and defenses, which are denial and perceptual distortion. This can all lead to psychosis.
defensiveness -- the behavior of not listening but rather defending oneself against a presumed attack. Freud. Rogers: see defenses.
defensive retreat -- Sometimes, when a child is born with a disability, the parents go through a series of stages similar to grief. In this stage, parents attempt to deal with the anxiety-
producing realities of their child's condition. Some try to solve the dilemma by considering an institution or placement for the child. Some may disappear for a while or retreat to a safer and
less demanding environment.
defer -- put off, delay; to postpone induction of a person into military service.
deferred imitation -- the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present.
deficiency -- lack.
deficiency needs -- in Maslow's theory, those needs without which a person will have insufficient resources to live. (See
deficit model -- curriculum activities that are focused on what is wrong with the child rather than his/her strengths.
deficit needs (d-needs) -- Maslow: the first four levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs model. These include
physiological needs, safety and security needs, love and belonging needs, and esteem needs. These levels
attempt to maintain homeostasis; and these needs are basic survival needs. People move through these needs in an
orderly manner, but may regress during times of stress. Maslow called these "instinctoid" needs; see deficiency needs;
definition of the situation -- the concept that a situation is based on a person's subjective interpretation; hence, two people can have different views of the same situation.
degenerate -- to worsen or lower.
degenerative diseases -- cause the function or structure of tissues or organs in affected body areas to deteriorate progressively. Includes muscular dystrophy, which involves
degeneration of muscles and muscle weakness; spinal muscular atrophy, which entails degeneration of motor neurons surrounding the brain stem and spinal cord; and cancer. As
these diseases progress, the child experiences a loss of functioning.
degrees of hearing loss -- levels of hearing loss including mild, moderate, severe, and profound.
degringoladé -- a rapid decline or deterioration, as in strength, position, or condition.
dehydration -- a state in which there is an excessive loss of body fluids or extremely limited fluid intake. Symptoms may include loss of skin tone, sunken eyes, and mental confusion.
deign -- to condescend to do something thought to be slightly beneath one's dignity.
deinstitutionalization -- the movement of individuals with disabilities, especially people with intellectual disabilities, from large institutions to smaller, community-based residences and work
deipnophobia -- fear of dining or dinner conversation.
déjà raconté -- Freud: the patient's illusion of already having said or done something in the therapist's presence when this did not really occur. The patient indeed had the impulse, but
didn't act on it. Often happens at payment time.
déjà vu -- Freud: a feeling related to an unconscious daydream; one of the mysterious feelings that play the role of hallucinations. Jung: a product of the collective unconscious;
occurs when one draws on the collective memories of humankind; "recognition of immemorially known."
de Lange syndrome (Brachmann de Lange syndrome, Cornelia de Lange syndrome) -- prenatal growth retardation, postnatal short stature, hypertrichosis (excessive body hair),
synophrys (confluent eyebrows), anteverted nostrils, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, thin upper lip, microcephaly, low-set ears, limb and digital anomalies, eye problems (myopia,
ptosis, or nystagmus), severe intellectual disability, occasional heart defect, gastrointestinal problems, features of autism, self-injurious behavior, occasional hearing loss. Caused by a
mutation in the Nipped-B-like gene (NIPBL), which is linked to chromosome 3q26.3, mostly new mutations with occasional autosomal dominant.
delayed speech -- a deficit in speaking proficiency whereby the individual performs like someone much younger.
delenda -- that which needs to be deleted; something that has been deleted.
deleterious -- harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way.
deletion -- loss of genetic material from a chromosome.
délicat (day-lee-kah) -- French for delicate. I think.
deliciate -- verb; to take one's pleasure, enjoy oneself, revel, luxuriate.
delineate -- to describe, explain, or demonstrate.
delinquency -- the legal term for antisocial acts committed by juveniles.
deliquesce -- become liquid, typically during decomposition; become liquid by absorbing moisture from the air.
delirium -- an organically based psychosis characterized by impaired attention, disorganized thinking, altered and fluctuating levels of consciousness, perceptual
disturbances, changes in sleep-wake cycle, agitation or slowing of movements, and memory impairment. It may be caused by encephalitis, diabetes, or intoxication
and is usually reversed by treating the underlying medical problem. (See picture.)
delitescent -- hidden, concealed; kept secret.
delivery of the baby -- the second stage of labor, lasting from the time the cervix is completely dilated until the fetus is expelled or removed by cesarean section.
dell -- small, usually wooded valley; vale.
delphic -- brotherly; oracular or prophetic.
delphinium -- a genus of perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native in the Northern Hemisphere; commonly called larkspur; with 3 to 7
toothed pointed lobed leaves; topped with a raceme of many flowers, varying in color from purple to blue to red, yellow, or white. See picture.
delta cells -- a type of cell in the pancreas (islets of Langerhans). They make somatostatin, a hormone that inhibits the release of numerous
hormones in the body.
delusional disorder -- characterized by the present of recurrent, persistent, non-bizarre delusions.
delusions -- false beliefs, often quite bizarre, that are symptoms of psychoses or drug intoxication.
demand/withdraw -- refers to a style of handling conflict in which one partner wants change and enacts the request (or demands) and the other partner
wants to maintain the status quo and enacts the avoidance (or withdraws).
demandingness -- the tendency of parents to exert firm control over children, requiring them to act in mature and appropriate ways.
demarche -- course of action; maneuver; specific movement.
demeanor -- behavior toward others; outward manner.
dementia -- a progressive neurological disorder marked by loss of memory, decreased speech, impairment in abstract thinking and judgment, other disturbances
of higher cortical function, and personality change. One example is Alzheimer's. (See picture.)
dementor -- soulless creatures considered to be among the foulest beings on earth. They are soul-sucking fiends who dement people who encounter them for too
long. They guard the wizard prison Azkaban. They are creatures in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling). They grow like fungi in the darkest, dankest places,
creating a dense, chilly fog. They feed on human emotions such as happiness and good memories. Their presence makes the surrounding atmosphere cold and
dark, and people nearby feel as if they will never be cheerful again. They can perform the Dementor's Kiss, in which the dementor sucks out the human's soul. The
way to shield against a dementor is the Patronus Charm. A group of dementors is a decay. A baby dementor is a deathling.
demesne -- a lord's privately owned manor or section of land.
demilucid dream -- a dream that is only half lucid?
demimonde -- a class of women kept by wealthy lovers or protectors; women prostitutes considered as a group; a group whose respectability is dubious or whose success is marginal.
de minimis (dee-MIN-uh-mus) -- lacking significance or importance; so minor as to merit disregard.
democratic models -- models in which power is shared.
democratic parenting -- a parenting style that establishes the parents' legitimate power to set rules while also recognizing the child's feelings, individuality, and need to develop autonomy;
uses positive reinforcement, seldom punishment, to enforce standards.
demographics -- the statistical graphics of a population, especially showing average age, income, gender, etc.
demography -- the study of population and population characteristics. (See below.)
demon -- a powerful supernatural spirit. In common usage in the West demons are considered evil, but in other cultures, especially in Hindu mythology, demons are chaotic rather than evil.
They can be worshipful toward the gods and they can even show generosity; but they can also easily become evil. Most of the time a demon is considered a malevolent supernatural spirit,
considered unclean and which can cause demonic possession, which must be addressed with exorcism. Demons are workers of harm, death, destruction, and pestilence. A group of demons
is an absinthe. A baby demon is a beelzebaby. (See picture above.)
demonophobia, daemonophobia -- fear of demons, spirits, goblins, etc.
demophobia -- fear of crowds.
demur -- raise doubts or objections or show reluctance; the action or process of objecting to or hesitating over something.
demure -- shy, modest, reserved in demeanor or behavior; having sedate reserve or sobriety.
demyelination -- the loss of the myelin sheath insulating the nerves. Demyelination is the hallmark of some neurodegenerative autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis,
Guillain-Barre Syndrome, Charcot-Marie Tooth syndrome, etc.
denasality -- a voice resonance disorder whereby too little air passes through the nasal cavity; also known as hyponasality.
denaturing agent -- any agent that changes the nature or natural qualities of something. Can refer to DNA -- causing the paired strands to separate into single strands.
dendrites -- parts of a neuron that are located on the cell body and receive messages from other neurons. (See diagram.)
dendritic cell -- a special type of immune cell that is found in tissues, such as the skin, and boosts immune responses by showing antigens on its
surface to other cells of the immune system. A dendritic cell is a type of phagocyte and a type of antigen-presenting cell (APC).
dendrophobia -- fear of trees.
denial -- Freud: a defense mechanism in which what is true is actually denied. Or, the refusal to believe information that provokes anxiety. Rogers: a
response to the threatening situation of the incongruity between what you picture as your ideal self and your immediate experience of yourself. Denial is
a defense, as is perceptual distortion. A stage of grief.
denouement -- final resolution or clarification of a dramatic or narrative plot.
dense connective tissue -- connective tissue that is characterized by an abundance of fibers with fewer cells, compared to loose connective
tissue. It is called fibrous or collagenous connective tissue because of the abundance of collagen fibers. Little intercellular substance is present. In this tissue, the fibers are organized into
a regular parallel pattern. Dense connective tissue is found in tendons and ligaments.
dental caries -- tooth decay. (See diagram.)
dental lamina -- a thickened band of tissue along the future dental arches in the human embryo.
dentate nucleus -- a small structure in the cerebellum. Responsible for processing signals to other areas of the brain. (See
picture below dental caries.)
dental organ -- the embryonic tissue that is the precursor of the tooth; also called tooth bud.
dental plaque -- patches of bacteria, bacterial by-products, and food particles on teeth that predispose them to decay.
dental problems -- one of the associated conditions of Down syndrome. The most serious dental problem that children with
Down syndrome experience is early-onset periodontal disease that rapidly progresses. Almost all children with Down
syndrome have malocclusions and other mouth anomalies. However, children with Down syndrome have fewer cavities than
the general population.
dental sealant -- plastic substances administered to teeth, most commonly the molars,
to increase their resistance to decay.
dentin -- the principal substance of the tooth surrounding the tooth pulp and covered
by enamel. (See illustration.)
dentition -- the development of teeth.
denude -- to divest of covering; make bare; to expose (rock strata) by erosion.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) -- the fundamental component of living tissue. It
contains the genetic code. (See 3-D picture below.)
dependence -- reliance on another person for continuous support or assistance.
dependent variable -- the variable the researcher expects to be influenced
by the independent variable in an experiment; the variable which is MEASURED or
depigmentation -- the lightening of the skin, or loss of pigment.
depilate -- to remove hair from the body.
depolarization -- changing the electrical charge of a cell.
depressed fracture -- fracture of bone, usually skull, that results in inward
displacement of the bone at the point of impact. It requires surgical intervention to
prevent damage to underlying tissue. (See picture.)
depression -- mental illness with symptoms that include chronic and significant feelings of sadness and hopelessness, and
may include thoughts of death. Freud: caused by repressed anger at a lost object (an important person who has become unavailable, left, or died) directed toward oneself.
deprivation -- in behavior management, denial of access to a reinforcing item or event.
depth -- a feature of curriculum that allows for exploration of a topic or concept beyond what is normally addressed.
depth perception -- a sense of how far away objects are or appear to be.
derived scores -- normative scores (such as age equivalents, grade equivalents, ratio IQs, percentiles, and standard scores) into which raw scores are converted.
dermal sinus -- a cavity lined extending from the skin surface to a deeper structure, most notably the spinal cord.
dermatitis -- inflammation or irritation of the skin, such as in rashes and eczema. (See picture of adorable baby cheeks.)
dermoid tumors -- cysts that contains developmentally mature skin complete with hair follicles and sweat glands, sometimes luxuriant clumps of long hair, and often pockets of sebum,
blood, fat, bone, nails, teeth, eyes, cartilage, and thyroid tissue. These tumors are almost always benign.
derring-do -- daring action; daring.
dervish -- a member of a Muslim religious order noted for devotional exercises OR one that dances or whirls with abandonment.
descemet membrane -- a thin hyaline membrane between the substantia propria and endothilial layer of the cornea.
description of feelings -- an account of feelings that can come only from the person holding the feelings.
descriptive and functional analysis -- observation period in behavior management that precedes treatment.
desegregation -- the process of ending the separation between two groups.
desertion -- the abandonment of marriage and family by one spouse.
desideratum -- something considered necessary or highly desirable.
design -- the organization of an artwork, including symmetry/asymmetry; repetition, alternation, and variation.
despair -- a stage of grief.
dessicate -- dry up, dehydrate, dessicate; dry out.
destructive communication -- communication that puts a greater distance between partners, makes them feel alienated from each other, or causes hurt feelings.
destructive intimacy games -- games that reduce intimacy because people are often unaware of the game, do not voluntarily participate, and are often manipulated to behave in certain
desuetude -- state of disuse; state of uselessness.
desultory -- lacking a plan, purpose, or enthusiasm; going from one subject to another in a halfhearted way; unfocused.
detachment -- a stage of grief.
deterministic perspective -- belief that human development is primarily based on genetic endowment.
detoxification -- the conversion of a toxic compound to a nontoxic material.
development -- change that takes place in a predictable sequence, from simple to complex, but at a different pace for individual people.
developmental accomplishment -- a statement that describes the knowledge or skill level achieved or attained.
developmental age -- age stated in terms of ability level as compared to other children (i.e., if a seven year old functions as a five year old socially, then the developmental age is five years
developmental aphasia -- a severe language disorder that is presumed to be due to a brain injury rather than due to a developmental delay in the normal acquisition of language.
developmental articulation disorder -- involves the mispronunciation of speech sounds; for example, lisping, substituting "w" for "r", etc. These are common childhood speaking errors,
but by the age of 5 or 6, nearly all speech sounds have been learned by typically developing children. There are two kinds of developmental articulation disorders: those that occur due to
a physical disability (called "organic") and those that occur in the absence of a physical disability (called "functional articulation disorder").
developmental charts -- method of tracking the developmental progress of children.
developmental cognitive curriculum model -- a theory-driven model, based on the work of Piaget, which emphasizes the domain of cognitive skill development.
developmental continuum -- the range of skills or behaviors among children in any one area of development; the range is predictable but not rigid.
developmental curriculum -- curriculum that assists children with special needs to go through the typical stages of development.
developmental delay -- A concept defined by individual states when referring to young children with special needs. A delay is usually determined on the basis of various developmental
assessments and/or informal clinical opinion. A developmental delay is defined by IDEA as a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development,
social or emotional development, communication development, adaptive development, or having a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in
developmental delay. The term "developmental delay" is generally used for very small children, up until age 3. It can be used, however, until age 9.
developmental deprivation -- see emotional neglect.
developmental disabilities -- mental and/or physical impairments that are diagnosed at birth or during the childhood and adolescent years. For this term to apply, there must be substantial
functional limitations in at least 3 areas of major life activity (e.g., self-care, language, learning, mobility, self-direction, capacity for independent living, or economic self-sufficiency).
developmental disequilibrium -- A period of inconsistent behavior which often follows a spurt of rapid development.
developmental dislocation of the hip (DDDH) -- a congenital hip dislocation, usually evident at birth, occurring more commonly in girls.
developmental domains -- the three categories established to provide a basis for focusing on the specific areas of physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development.
developmental inconsistency-- Learned behavior that may "come and go" before a final consolidation into the child's overall behavior pattern.
developmental individual difference, relationship-based model (DIR) -- a program that builds social and emotional development, intelligence, and morality for children with delays in
social-emotional development. The program utilizes functional development capacities.
developmental instruction -- instruction that matches a child's abilities and interests according to age, skills, and cognitive level.
developmental language disorder (language delay) -- a condition wherein a child does not learn language as quickly as his/her peers. This child may have normal intelligence, or s/he
may have a condition involving intellectual disability or a language delay. Developmental language disorders in the absence of intellectual disability or any other impairment may be
hereditary or genetic. Also developmental language disorder may be the result of a hearing loss. Children with developmental language disorder learn language in the same sequence as
their peers, but their pace is delayed. Developmental language disorders (vs. a delay, which resolves with or without treatment) never "go away".
developmentalist -- a professional whose interests focus on human development.
developmental learning disability -- a term used to describe children younger than school age who have difficulty acquiring the prerequisite skill needed for later academic skills.
developmental level -- the level at which a child functions in regard to cognitive, social-emotional, or motor skills.
developmentally appropriate -- Use of strategies and approaches based on day-to-day decisions about individual students within the context of their families and cultural and social
values; learning experiences geared to a child's skills, interests, maturation level, and chronological age.
developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) -- Use of strategies and approaches based on day-to-day decisions about individual students within the context of their families and cultural
and social values, guidelines set forth by the National Association for the Education of young Children (NAEYC) for early childhood curriculum. The guidelines emphasize exploratory
play, a child-initiated curriculum, a naturalistic setting, and child problem solving.
developmentally supportive care -- an approach to care that views the infant as "an active collaborator; in determining what services are necessary to enhance survival.
developmental milestones -- significant junctures in development; points at which specific skills are acquired in a fairly predictable order.
developmental model -- a method of physical therapy, sometimes called the bottom-up model, used to teach children the skills needed in the sequence of normal development.
developmental norms -- the mean or average age at which children demonstrate certain behaviors and abilities.
developmental or physiological readiness -- growth (both physical and cognitive) and chemical processes that lead to the ability to perform a function.
developmental psychology -- the branch of psychology devoted to the study of changes in behavior and abilities over the course of life.
developmental quotient -- a score on an infant intelligence test, based primarily on perceptual and motor responses. Computed in the same manner as an IQ.
developmental readiness -- the level at which a child has the prerequisite skills to perform certain tasks.
developmental schedule -- arrangement of a daily plan for children that is based on both individual and group levels of development.
developmental screening -- evaluation that discovers the child's level of functioning to determine whether the child has a developmental delay.
developmental tasks -- those functions or work to be done by children at a particular point in their development.
developmental theory -- a theory that reflects a maturation view of child development. Key to this theory is the natural growth sequence of the young child. Under favorable, open
circumstances, the child's own inner drive and need to learn will naturally emerge and develop.
developmental verbal dyspraxia -- see verbal dyspraxia, apraxia, verbal apraxia.
development curriculum model -- a model based on the theories of typical child development, which suggests that skills are acquired in a predictable sequence.
deviant -- a term used to describe the behavior of individuals who are unable to adapt to social roles or to establish appropriate interpersonal relationships.
devitalized couple -- the unhappiest type of married couple, characterized by few couple strengths and the highest risk for divorce.
dewlap -- a fold of loose skin hanging from the neck of certain animals; a pendulous part similar to this, such as the wattle of a bird; a fold of loose skin hanging from the neck of a person.
dextrocardia -- the location of the heart in the right hemithorax, either as a result of displacement by disease or as a congenital defect. (See x-ray.)
dextrophobia -- fear of right, or things to the right.
dextrose -- a simple sugar, similar to glucose and used to medically correct or to prevent low blood sugar.
dharma -- right conduct in Hinduism, which involves acting with patience, self-control, selflessness, and truthfulness.
diabetes -- a disease that results from insufficient production of insulin.
diabetes mellitus -- a disease characterized by inadequate use of insulin, resulting in disordered metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The body does not produce or use
insulin properly. Insulin converts sugar, starches, and other foods into energy needed for daily life. There are 20.8 million children and adults in the US that have diabetes, or 7% of the
population. Type 1 diabetes results from the body's failure to produce insulin. It is sometimes called juvenile diabetes. Symptoms are frequent urination, excessive thirst, extreme hunger,
unusual weight loss, increased fatigue, irritability, and blurry vision. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in young children, adolescents, and young adults.
diabetic coma -- unconscious state that occurs due to an excessive amount of blood sugar.
diabetic retinopathy -- visual impairment caused by hemorrhages on the retina and other disorders of blood circulation in people with diabetes.
diablerie -- dealing with the devil or devils; witchcraft; sorcery; consorting with demons.
diagnosis -- the process of identifying the nature of a disability by using standardized tests and observations.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed.) (DSM-IV) -- manual published by the American Psychiatric Association that therapists use to classify psychological disorders.
diagnostic assessment or evaluation -- testing or used to determine areas of weakness; an in-depth appraisal of an individual child by a specialist, frequently after a child has been
identified by a screening process or a teacher.
diagnostic interview -- conversations designed to yield developmental information about a child.
diagnostic testing -- testing used to determine areas of weakness.
dialect -- a variation of a language, sufficiently different from the original to become a separate entity but not different enough to be considered as a separate language; including unique
vocabulary and syntax.
dialectic -- of, pertaining to, or of the nature of logical argumentation; characteristic of a dialect; disputation or debate; the conventional Socratic method of argument.
dialectical -- refers to the idea of opposing (or complementary) needs and forces in relationships, such as the need for disclosure and the need for privacy.
dialysis -- detoxification procedure. Can be hemodialysis (blood) or peritoneal dialysis (through abdominal wall); used to treat kidney failure. (See
diamante -- a 7-line poem that follows this pattern (it is in the shape of a diamond): Line 1 -- noun, the topic or theme of the poem; Line 2 -- 2 adjectives that
describes line 1 but that are the opposite of line 7 (if it is an antonym diamante, but if it is a synonym diamante, then a synonym); Line 3 -- 3 gerunds that
describe line 1; Line 4 -- 4 nouns -- 2 to describe line 1 and 2 to describe line 7; Line 5 -- 3 gerunds to describe line 7; line 6 -- 2 adjectives to describe line 7;
and Line 7 -- 1 noun; an antonym or synonym of line 1.
diametrical -- used to emphasize how completely different two or more things are; of or along a diameter; exactly opposite; contrary; completely opposed
Diana vs. the Board of Education of California (1970) -- State court case establishing that schools could not place students in special education programs on the basis of culturally
biased assessments or tests that are not in the student's primary language.
diaphanous -- very sheer and light; almost completely transparent or translucent; delicately hazy; cobwebby, filmy, gauzy; gossamer; see-through.
diaphragm -- the primary muscle of respiration and separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities. The diaphragm decreases intrapleural pressure, and expands the rib cage.
diaphragmatic hernia -- a birth defect in which there is an abnormal opening in the diaphragm. The opening allows part of the organs from the belly (stomach, spleen, liver, and
intestines) to go up into the chest cavity near the lungs. Symptoms are severe breathing difficulty, cyanosis, tachypnea, and tachycardia. It can be repaired by surgery. It is cause
prenatally during development. It happens in 1/2,200 to 1/5,000 live births.
diaphysis -- the shaft of a long bone lying under the epiphysis.
diarrhea -- loose stools.
diary -- journal; a style of recounting past events, including feelings these events arouse.
diary descriptions -- a form of observation technique that involves making a comprehensive narrative record of behavior in diary form.
diaspora -- dissemination, dispersion; random or selective redistribution.
diastematomyelia -- a congenital defect in which the spinal cord is divided into halves by a bony or cartilaginous divider, often seen in spina bifida.
diastolic pressure -- a measure of the pressure in blood vessels between heartbeats (when the heart is at rest). It is the bottom number in a blood pressure reading. Low diastolic
pressure is below 60. High diastolic pressure is over 90.
DI cells -- seriously misunderstood and melancholy cells in the islets of Langerhans.
didactic -- intended for instruction; instructive; inclined to teach or lecture others too long; teaching or intending to teach a moral lesson; pedantic, preachy, donnish, pedagogic.
didactic materials -- instructional items used in Montessori programs.
diddly-squat -- a small or worthless amount.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans -- report that gives recommendations for daily food choices, to be balanced with physical activity, to assure good health and reduce certain disease risks.
dietary nucleotides -- amino acid combinations found to increase an infant's ability to produce antibodies in response to exposure to disease.
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) -- a plan that presents the recommended goals of nutrient intakes for various age and gender groups.
differential reinforcement -- a behavior management technique in which a preferred alternate behavior is positively reinforced while a less preferred behavior is ignored.
differentiated cry -- differing cries of a child that signal different needs (e.g., a tired cry sounds different from an angry cry.)
differentiated education -- instruction and learning activities that are uniquely and predominantly suited to the capacities and interests of gifted students.
differentiation -- modifying curriculum and other services to meet specific needs of individual learners.
differentiation theory -- the view that perceptual development involves the detection of increasingly fine-grained, invariant features in the environment.
difficult child -- a child whose temperament is characterized by irregular daily routines, slow acceptance of new experiences, and negative and intense reactions.
diffident -- lacking confidence in one's own ability, worth, or fitness; timid; shy; restrained or reserved in manner and conduct; self-conscious, self-effacing, abashed, embarrassed, modest,
unassuming, not confident.
diffuse axonal injury (DAI) -- diffuse injury to nerve cell components, usually resulting from shearing forces. This is the type of traumatic brain injury associated with motor vehicle
diffusionists -- anthropologists and folklorists in the nineteenth century who believed that all cultural traits (including tales) were developed in a few centers of culture, from which they
diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) -- a new form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning that can identify with great sensitivity areas of the brain that have suffered an acute
DiGeorge syndrome -- see chromosome 22q11 microdeletion syndromes.
digestion -- the process by which complex nutrients in foods are changed into smaller units that can be absorbed and used by the body.
digestive fluid -- secretions that aid digestion; hydrochloric acid secreted by the gastric glands in the stomach.
digestive glands -- a gland, such as the liver or pancreas, that secretes into the alimentary canal substances necessary for digestion.
digestive tract -- pertains to, and includes, the mouth, throat, stomach, and intestines. (SEE?>).
digital video cameras -- devices that record images electronically.
digraph -- a single sound, or phoneme, represented by two letters. A trigraph consists of 3 letters, but they are called digraphs most of the
time. Digraphs are ch, ck, ff, gh (as in ghost), gn (gnome), kn (knight), ll, mb (lamb), ng, nk, ph (phone), qu, sh, ss, th (thin), th (this), wh, wr (write), zz. Trigraphs ar chr (chrome), dge
(dodge), tch (match).
dikephobia -- fear of justice.
dilated cardiomyopathy -- a condition in which the heart becomes weakened and enlarged, and it cannot pump blood efficiently. This can affect the lungs, liver, and other body systems.
Symptoms are shortness of breath, swelling of feet and ankles, rapid or irregular pulse, fatigue, weakness, fainting, abdominal swelling, loss of appetite, cough, chest pain, decreased
alertness or concentration, failure to thrive, low urine production, need to urinate at night, and shock.
dilation and curettage (D&C) -- an abortion technique used in the second trimester of pregnancy; performed in a hospital under general anesthetic. After the cervix is dilated, the embryo
is removed from the uterus with a sharp instrument; ALSO a procedure used after a miscarriage to clean out the uterus to prevent further bleeding.
dilation and effacement of the cervix -- widening and thinning of the cervix during the first stage of labor. (See picture.)
dilatory -- slow; not prompt.
dilettante -- one who dabbles in an occupation or hobby without serious intent.
diligent -- characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort; painstaking.
dilly-dally -- to waste time, especially in indecision; dawdle; vacillate; procrastinate.
diluvial -- of, relating to, or brought about by a flood.
dinophobia -- fear of dizziness; fear of whirlpools.
DINS dilemma -- inhibited or hypoactive sexual desire in couples with many demands on their time: double income no sex.
diocese -- the district or churches under the jurisdiction of a bishop; a bishopric.
diopters -- the units of refractive power of a lens. (See picture.)
dioscuric -- describing a twin, whether person or event, of a twin; of a duplicate.
diphthong -- a complex sound made by gliding from one vowel sound to another within the same syllable as in boy or out. Technically, a diphthong is a sound that consists of two vowels,
and a triphthong is such a sound that consists of three vowels.
diplegia -- paralysis of both arms or both legs. (See picture.)
diploid -- having paired chromosomes in non-dividing cells (i.e., 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs).
diplopiaphobia -- fear of double vision.
dipsomania -- an irresistible, typically periodic craving for alcoholic drink.
dipsophobia, dipsomanophobia -- fear of alcoholic drink.
direct contact -- the passage of infectious organisms from an infected individual directly to a susceptible host through methods such as coughing, sneezing, or touching.
directed teaching curriculum -- a program with activities that emphasize the behavioral model of learning. Activities are teacher-directed and planned.
direct family policy -- government actions aimed explicitly at affecting families.
direct feedback -- first hand communication between parent and teacher.
direct instruction -- A comprehensive, highly structured, teacher-led instructional approach that emphasizes maximizing not only the quantity of instructions students receive but also the
quality; instruction that focuses on the explicit teaching of academic, adaptive, and functional skills. A structured, teacher-directed approach is used to teach children new skills.
direct intervention -- services that include teaching parents problem-solving skills and providing direct counseling.
directive listening -- a style of listening in which the listener attempts to control the direction of the conversation through the use of questions.
direct observation -- in research studies, the collection of information by the researcher's watching the behavior of the study participants.
direct service delivery -- a procedure in which services are delivered directly to a client rather than consulting with or training another person to deliver the prescribed services.
disability -- a condition resulting from a loss of physical functioning, or difficulties in learning and social adjustment that significantly interferes with normal growth and development; an
inability to do something; a reduced capacity to perform in a specific way. A person with a disability has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits the person in some major life
disavowal -- Freud: a splitting of an ego confronted by some distressing demand from the outer world. Contrast this with repression, where the demand comes from within.
disbelief -- a stage of grief.
discipline -- ability to follow an example or to follow rules; the development of self-control or control in general, such as by imposing order on a group. In early childhood terms, discipline
means everything adults do and say to influence a child's behavior.
disclosure -- a statement that indicates the speaker has been a victim of abuse or maltreatment.
discoid lupus erythematosus -- a skin disorder in which a red, raised rash appears on the face, scalp, or elsewhere. The raised areas may become thick and scaly and may cause
scarring. It is rare.
discombobulate -- to throw into a state of confusion.
discontinuous development -- a view in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times.
discontinuous perspective -- a view in which new and different modes of interpreting and responding to the world emerge at particular stages.
discovery learning -- teaching method that uses minimal teacher guidance and maximum student exploration, including trial and error learning. This is one of Piaget's three educational
principles: encouragement to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment. The other two are sensitivity to children's readiness to learn, and acceptance of
each child's individual differences.
discrepancy analysis -- examines where and how the two ecological inventories differ and whether the points of difference can be the basis for instruction or can be addressed through
other means, such as assistive technology.
discrete trial training -- highly specialized intervention for young students with autism spectrum disorders in which the teacher gives an prompt to which the student attends, a
command for the student to perform, and finally a reward to the student for the desired behavior.
discretionary legislation -- laws that are made available to be implemented by the state or by local agencies, but that are not required.
discretionary program -- implies choice or option; Part H of PL 99-457 is discretionary; states decide whether they will provide services for infants and toddlers with developmental delays.
discrimination -- acting in an unfavorable manner toward people because of their affiliation with a group.
discriminative stimulus -- an event that signals that a behavior will be followed by some type of reinforcer or punisher.
disease -- refers to sickness; the implication being curable, treatable, or lessened by medication.
disequilibrium -- cognitive conflict when new information does not associate or match previous data.
dishabillophobia -- fear of undressing in front of someone.
dishabituation -- an increase in attention to a new stimulus after an infant has habituated to a previous stimulus.
disheveled -- marked by disorder or disarray.
disinfected -- killed pathogenic organisms.
disinhibitions -- loss of inhibition; unrestrained behavior.
disintegrate -- break up into parts, typically as the result of impact or decay; weaken or break apart.
dislocation -- the displacement of a bone out of a joint space.
dislodge -- to remove or force out from a position or dwelling previously occupied.
dismissing -- Dismissing adults minimize negative childhood experiences and dismiss the impact of early attachments on development. Dismissing adults may insist that they cannot
remember childhood events, or their memories may contradict. The conversation is not coherent.
disorder -- a disturbance in normal functioning (mental, physical, or psychological).
disorders of carbohydrate metabolism -- inborn errors of metabolism involving enzyme deficiencies in the breakdown of sugars.
disordered or random scribbling -- an early part of the scribble stage, characterized by the child's lack of control over hand movements or the marks on a page. The marks are random
and go in many directions.
disorganized/disoriented attachment -- the quality of insecure attachment characterizing infants who respond in a confused, contradictory fashion when reunited with the parent. These
infants have typically been abused or had some other such trauma.
disorientation -- lack of awareness or ability to recognize familiar persons or objects.
displacement -- turning angry feelings away from the source of the anger. Freud: the dream's tricky transfer of high-impact emotionality onto unimportant material and an emotional cooling
to hot material. This and condensation are the most important doers of the distortive dreamwork that censors the true wishes underneath the original object of its aim. It is therefore a key
factor in personality development.
display rules -- rules regarding how emotions should or should not be displayed.
dispositions -- the feelings or responses to a body of knowledge. Stable attitudes, patterns, or repertoires found in individual approaches to learning and participating -- curiosity or
persistence, for example.
disproportionate representation -- instances in which a particular group is represented significantly more or less than would be expected based on the percentages of those who
comprise that group in the general population.
disruptive behavior disorders -- a category in the DSM (1994) that includes oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and ADHD; (also called conduct disorders).
disseise -- to deprive; especially wrongfully, of seisen; to put out of possession or occupancy; dispossess.
dissemble -- disguise or conceal one's true motives, feelings, or beliefs; to mislead.
dissimulate -- to conceal or disguise; to hide with the intent of deceit.
dissociation -- the process whereby some ideas, feelings, or activities lose relationship to other aspects of consciousness and personality and operate automatically or independently.
Dissociative symptoms include emotional detachment, temporary loss of memory, depersonalization, and derealization.
dissolution -- the act or process of resolving or dissolving into parts or elements.
distal -- pertaining to the part farthest from the mid-line or trunk.
distancer -- an individual who wants emotional space when stress is high, is self-reliant rather than a help-seeker, and values privacy.
distention -- stretched or enlarged.
distortions -- articulation disorder that occurs when a sound not found in the individual's language is used in place of another sound.
distortive dreamwork -- see dreamwork.
distractibility -- a mental state in which attention does not remain fixed on any one subject but wavers or wanders.
distractors -- people who avoid disclosing relevant feelings, so they never discuss a problem but instead change the subject.
distress -- feelings of discomfort caused by high levels of stress.
distributed practice -- a method of toilet training in which elimination patterns are analyzed for the purpose of training the child. Reinforcement is given for success.
distributive justice -- beliefs about how to divide material goods fairly.
diuretics -- medications used to reduce intercellular fluid buildup in the body (edema), especially in the lungs.
divergent thinking -- ability to think of a wide range of possibilities, associated with creativity and giftedness.
diverse background -- coming from a different heritage or culture than the majority.
diversity -- broad range of differences, individual uniqueness.
diverticula -- (singular: diverticulum) pockets of tissue (sacs) that push out from the colon walls. These can occur throughout the colon but are the most common near the end of the left
side of the colon.
diving reflex -- named for its presence in diving seals, this also occurs in infants during hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and results in the redistribution of blood away from "non-
vital organs" (e.g., kidneys, liver, lungs, intestines, and skeletal muscles) to preserve the perfusion of the "vital organs" (i.e., heart, brain, and adrenal glands). This reflex if
prolonged may result in insufficient blood supply and damage to the non-vital organs.
divisi -- musical term, divided, separated.
divorce -- the legal dissolution of a valid marriage.
divorce account -- each partner's description of the important events in the relationship, or characteristics of the other partner, that brought about the divorce.
divorce culture -- the notion that divorce has become so accepted in the United States that it is almost expected as the outcome of a marriage.
divorce hangover -- situation in which ex-partners are unable to let go of the fact of their divorce, reorient themselves as single parents, or develop new friendships.
divorce mediation -- a series of meetings between divorcing adults and a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict, including legal battles over property division and child
divorce related malicious mother syndrome -- situation in which a mother unjustifiably punishes her divorcing or divorced husband by attempting to
alienate their mutual children from him, and denying him visitation, telephone access, and participation in their school and after-school activities.
divorce-stress adjustment model -- a conceptual model based on the common assumption that divorce is a stressful life transition to which individuals must
divorcism -- belief that divorce is harmful.
dizygotic or fraternal twins -- twins resulting from the release and fertilization of two ova. They are genetically no more alike than ordinary siblings. (2
sperms, 2 eggs, 2 kids). (See pictures.)
DMD muscular dystrophy -- see Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
DNA -- see deoxyribonucleic acid; molecules that make up chromosomes. (See picture below how twins work pictures.)
DNR -- see do not resuscitate.
doberge cake -- a layered dessert from New Orleans, Louisiana, made with multiple thin layers of cake alternating with
pudding, butter cream, and poured glaze. Traditional flavors are chocolate, lemon, and caramel.
document -- the action of preserving data for later review; documentation -- the product that preserves the data.
documentation -- The process of classroom observation and record keeping over time and across learning modalities to
keep track of children's learning.
documentation panels -- displays of children's work that show the process of their thinking and planning and the resulting
dog days -- the period between early July and early September when the hot sultry weather of summer usually occurs in the
northern hemisphere; a period of stagnation or inactivity.
doggerel -- crudely or irregularly fashioned verse, often of a humorous or burlesque nature; nonsense; drivel.
dog guides -- animals that are trained to act as guides for people who are blind or deaf-blind. Dogs are increasingly used
as guides for other disabilities as well.
dog -- another name for chum salmon.
doleful -- expressing sorrow, mournful; causing grief or misfortune.
dolichocephaly -- a long head -- having a head whose width is less than 76% of its length from front to back.
domains of family life -- include emotional well-being, parenting, family interaction, physical/ material well-being, and disability-
domain specific -- an ability or intense interest in a particular area of inquiry such as mathematics or music.
domatophobia -- fear of home.
domestic partner -- two people, gay or straight, who have chosen to cohabit or share each other's lives in an intimate and
committed relationship, without being married.
domestic partnership certificate -- legal recognition of a cohabiting couple that bestows on them some legal rights while
maintaining the distinction between married and unmarried couples.
domestic partnership movement -- movement that attempts to obtain some kind of official recognition of domestic partners in
order to provide them with the legal and economic benefits of marriage.
dominant -- in genetics, referring to a trait that only requires one copy of a gene to be expressed phenotypically; Jung:
dominant cerebral hemisphere -- the hemisphere of the brain responsible for skilled motor action. The left hemisphere is
dominant in right-handed individuals, and vice versa. Or, motor and language skills may be shared between the hemispheres.
dominant culture -- culture of those in power.
dominant gene -- a gene whose code is expressed when only one copy of the gene is present.
dominant language -- the language the child reads, writes, and speaks most fluently.
dominant recessive inheritance -- a pattern of inheritance in which, under heterozygous conditions, the influence of only one
allele is apparent.
dominants -- Jung.
donnish -- thought to resemble or suit a college don, particularly because of a pedantic, scholarly manner.
do no harm -- the hallmark of research is this, protection from physical or psychological harm (for the participants) during research or as a result of the research.
do not resuscitate (DNR) -- medical orders that, should a patient develop a cardiopulmonary arrest, no attempts at resuscitation should be undertaken.
doozie -- something extraordinary or bizarre; something excellent.
Dopamine -- a neurotransmitter in the brain, primarily involved in producing positive moods or feelings. Secreted by neurons in the substantia nigra, mid-brain, and hypothalamus, it
plays a role in movements, too. It's commonly in shortage in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease.
doraphobia -- fear of fur or the skin of animals; fear of cartoon character "Dora".
dormant -- in a state of minimal metabolic activity with cessation of growth.
dorsal -- relating to or situated near or on the back, especially of an animal or of one of its parts.
dorsiflexion -- movement of the foot upward. (See picture.)
Double ABC-X model of family stress -- An explanation of a family's adjustment to a stressful life event in terms of the coping skills and strategies
it possesses as well as its perception of how severe the strain from the stressful event will be, recognizing that families experience a "pile-up" of stresses over time that may affect their ability
to cope with new stresses; Reuben Hill.
double bind -- a situation in which the message relayed by the speaker calls into question the type of relationship the receiver has with the speaker.
double blind, placebo controlled study -- a procedure used to control for expectancy effects by subjects and bias by researchers in studies evaluating the effects of a treatment or
intervention. Some subjects receive the actual treatment; others receive a placebo designed to appear like the actual treatment. Subjects do not know whether they are receiving the real
treatment or placebo. The researchers do not know which subjects received the treatment.
Double Cortex Syndrome -- see lissencephaly.
double-dog-dare -- after a dare has been made, the daree has refused, the darer can then raise the stakes by double dog daring the daree, meaning that if the dare is carried out by the
daree, then the darer will also perform the task. It can be further raised to a triple dog dare.
double effect -- principle of a moral argument used to defend certain actions that can be anticipated to have both good and bad outcomes.
double entendre -- double meaning from the same phrase or word or entire poem, story, etc. It is a figure of speech in which the first meaning is straightforward, while the second meaning
is less so; often risque, inappropriate, or ironic.
double helix -- the coiled structure of DNA.
double hemiplegia -- both halves of the body are affected, but one side more severely.
double outlet right ventricle -- The right ventricle is relatively thin-walled, and it pumps the blood received from the right atrium into the
pulmonary arteries to the lungs for oxygenation. So this must mean that there are two outlets, where there should be one. (See illustration.)
double remarriages -- marriage in which both partners were previously married.
double standard -- different standards of appropriate sexual and social behavior for the two sexes; the belief that premarital sex is more
acceptable for males than it is for females.
doublet -- Lewis Carroll called the puzzles he invented doublets. "The rules of the puzzle are simple enough. Two words are proposed, of the
same length; and the puzzle consists in linking these together by interposing other words, each of which shall differ from the next word in one letter
only. Each letter must keep its own place ... I call the given words 'a Doublet', the interposed words 'links' and the entire series 'a chain', of which I
here append an example: HEAD heal teal tell tall TAIL" (Lewis Carroll).
douching -- an ineffective form of contraception in which a liquid containing vinegar or another acidic solution is squirted into the vagina following intercourse.
doughty -- marked by fearless resolution; valiant.
downshifting -- a process by which the brain reacts to a perceived threat. The brain learns optimally when appropriately challenged; however, should the person sense a threat or danger
(either physical or emotional), the brain will become less flexible and revert to primitive attitudes and procedures.
Down Syndrome -- Genetic cause of intellectual disability in which an extra chromosome is present on the 21st chromosome pair. Individuals with this are usually short in stature, have
straight hair, upwardly slanting eyelids, and may have hearing disabilities or heart conditions. Hypotonia, flat facial profile, small ears, intellectual disability, small nose with low nasal
bridge, single palmar creases, congenital heart disease. Caused by trisomy 21 (94%), mosaicism (2.4%), and translocation (3.6%); new mutation (sporadic). Associated
complications: atlantoaxial instability, ligamentous laxity, strabismus, nystagmus, cataracts, glaucoma, seizures, leukemia, thyroid abnormalities, recurrent respiratory tract
infections, obesity, depression, inappropriate behavior, premature senility, expressive language delay, rate of development slows with age. Prenatally diagnosis possible with
amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling and chromosome analysis. Inheritance is age- related (maternal); incidence: For women 45 years old or older, the incidence is 1
in 32 compared to 1 in 2,000 for women between 20 and 25 years old. In women ~ 35 years old, the risk of trisomy 21 (1 in 400) as well as the possibility of other chromosomal abnormalities
is considered significant enough to warrant routine prenatal diagnostics. For women younger than 35 who have already had one child with trisomy 21, the recurrence risk increases to 1 in
100. Recurrence risk: in simple trisomy 21, risk to patient's siblings is related to maternal age. If young, 1% to 2%; higher if mother is older. If cause is translocation, risk is higher.
dowry -- the money, property, or goods a woman brings into a marriage.
Draco -- a constellation in the far northern sky, named for the Latin word dragon, circumpolar; one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd century astronomer Ptolemy; 13 of the stars in
Draco are known to have planets.
draconian -- of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Draco or his code of laws; rigorous; unusually severe or cruel; harsh. Draco was a 7th century Athenian statesman and lawmaker and his
code of law prescribed death for almost every offense; also Draco Malfoy, obviously.
dragon -- a large flying reptile that breathes fire and is often associated with evil. Sometimes a dragon is the guardian of treasure or a maiden. Dragons are terrifying and awe-inspiring.
There are several different breeds if dragons. A group of dragons is a blister. A baby dragon is a dragonfly. Do not meddle in the affairs of dragons, for you are crunchy and good with
dram -- a unit of avoirdupois weight equal to 1/16 ounce; a unit of apothecaries' weight equal to 1/8 ounce; a unit of liquid capacity equal to 1/8 fluid ounce; a small portion of something to
drink; a small amount.
dramatic play (make-believe) -- pretend play which includes taking the roles of others.
dramatic play and housekeeping area -- pretend play which includes taking the roles of others.
draught -- can mean: a current of air, pulling a load, a portion of liquid to be drunk, a gulp or swallow, breathing, beer and wine, the depth of a loaded vessel in water, to make a blueprint of.
breeze, drink, swallow, checkerboard ...
dreadnought -- a warm garment of thick cloth; also the cloth; battleship; one that is among the largest or most powerful of its kind.
dream -- Freud: an invariably egotistical internal state made external. A brief nightly psychosis. A regression prompted by an infantile wish seeking fulfillment. "The royal road to the
unconscious" because dream symbols can be interpreted in a way that enlightens the therapist about what is going on in the patient's unconscious. Dreams are compromises in that they
express a conflict about a wish: pulling together material left over from the previous day, they fulfill the wish (or several wishes) symbolically but keep that unconscious and the dreamer
asleep through the use of a repressive censor who rewrites the latent emotional material into manifest imagery difficult to understand. Dreams are invariably the products of conflict and can
be prompted by either ego or id. Jung: believed that a dream's content uses symbolic languages; that a dream expresses collective racial unconscious memories and instincts shared by all
people. Dreams contain symbolic archetypes. Dreams indicate the way to self-actualization. "My situation is mirrored in my dreams." "Who looks outside dreams, who looks inside
dream day -- Freud: the day before the dream, and from which it gathers its material.
dream interpretation -- Jung: Jung believed that dream symbols helped heal the psyche. The images or archetypes of dreams have meaning. It is as though the unconscious is trying to
speak to us, to bring about a sense of wholeness and added meaning to our lives. (also Freud.)
dream series -- Freud: the series of similar dreams; it is to be interpreted as a whole.
dreamwork -- Freud: the mental activity that translates the latent wish-seeking unconscious material into the manifest imagery that disguises it. Dreamwork is NOT the work one does in a
dream. Includes condensation, displacement of affect, identification, composition, inversion, and secondary elaboration. (Since Freud's time, dreamwork seems to be falling down on the job,
since dreams don't seem to be very well disguised.)
drive -- Freud: the bodily demands upon mental life. Freud believed in good materialist fashion that mind arose from drive, ego from id. A drive has a source (bodily needs that arise from
the erogenous zones), an impetus, an internal aim (temporary removal of the bodily need), an external aim (the steps taken to reach the final goal of the internal aim), and an object. Drives
give rise to the libido -- energy that drives all psychological activity. We never experience the drive itself, just its representation or idea in the mind. A drive might undergo the following
vicissitudes: reversal into its opposite, turning around upon the subject, repression, sublimation, and anxiety.
dromophobia -- fear of crossing streets.
drug abuse -- use of a drug in violation of legal restrictions or for non-medical reasons.
drug-induced lupus erythematosus -- a side-effect of long-term use of certain medications. Symptoms are muscle and joint pain and swelling, flu-like symptoms of fatigue and fever,
serositis (inflammation around the lungs or heart that causes pain or discomfort), and laboratory test abnormalities. Lupus-inducing drugs may be medicines used to treat chronic
conditions such as heart disease, thyroid disease, hypertension, neuropsychiatric disorders; and certain anti-inflammatory drugs. The risk of developing this is very low.
drugs -- chemical substances other than those required for the maintenance of normal health.
dual career couple -- a couple in which both spouses (partners) are employed full-time in high-status professions or managerial positions.
dual diagnosis -- identification of both serious emotional problems and intellectual disability in the same individual.
dual earner marriages -- see co-provider marriages.
dual representation -- viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own right and a symbol.
dual sensory impairments -- a condition characterized by both vision and hearing sensory impairments. This condition can result in severe communication problems as well as
developmental and educational difficulties that require extensive support across several professional disciplines; called deaf-blindness.
dubnium -- atomic number 105, symbol Db; an artificially produced radioactive element with half-lives of mere seconds; produced in minute quantities by bombarding plutonium with high-
energy neon ions; was also called unnilpentium; discovered in 1970 by Albert Ghiorso; named after Dubna, Russia.
Dubowitz syndrome -- prenatal onset of growth deficiency, postnatal short stature, eczema, sparse hair, mild microcephaly, cleft palate, dysmorphic facial features (high forehead, broad
nasal ridge, ptosis, epicanthal folds), intellectual disability, behavioral disturbances, recurrent infections, increased frequency of malignancy, occasional hypospadias (abnormality in
the location of the male urethra), or cryptorchidism, hypoparathyroidism. Cause is unknown, inheritance autosomal recessive.
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) -- progressive pelvic muscle weakness and atrophy, enlargement of thigh muscles,
tight heel cords. Patients develop progressive respiratory difficulty, heart failure, often mild intellectual disability. Elevated
serum creatine kinase. Survival beyond young adulthood is unusual. Caused by a mutation in dystrophin gene located on the
short arm of the X chromosome. Inheritance usually X-linked recessive, rare autosomal recessive form. Associated
complications are contractures, scoliosis, wheelchair dependence (usually by age 10 --12), progressive weakness,
pneumonia, EKG abnormalities, learning disabilities, hypotonia, delays in motor milestone achievement. Prenatal diagnosis
possible following determination of the child's gender by amniocentesis, use of dystropin cDNA probes for deletion
identification and linkage of DMD markers and DMD gene. Incidence: 1/3,300 in United States; recurrence risk, male offspring of
XLR carrier mother, 50% (see illustration). Also called childhood muscular dystrophy, muscular dystrophy, BMD
Muscular Dystrophy, Becker type.
duckboard -- a boardwalk or slatted flooring laid out on a wet, muddy, or cold surface -- usually used in plural.
ductus arteriosis -- an arterial connection open during fetal life that diverts the blood flow from the pulmonary artery into the
aorta, thereby bypassing the not yet functional lungs.
ductus deferens -- a thick-walled tube in the male reproductive system that transports sperm cells from the epididymis.
ductus venosus -- open during fetal life, it is a shunt that allows oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the liver and
return to the systemic circulation for distribution to the rest of the body.
due process -- the right to protest and be heard prior to any action taken with respect to people or their dependent children. The
party that requests a due process hearing must provide a detailed notice to the other party that includes identifying information
about the child, the nature of the problem, facts, and a proposed resolution.
dulcet -- sweet and soothing (often used ironically: "I heard your dulcet tones.")
dulciloquy -- speech characterized by sounding soft or sweet.
dulcimer -- stringed instrument having three or four strings and a fretted fingerboard.
dulcinea -- sweetheart; lovely person; one whom a person loves or cares about.
duodenal atresia -- congenital absence of a portion of the first section of the small intestine, often seen in individuals with Down
Syndrome. (See 2 illustrations.)
duodenum -- first part of the small intestine. (See illustration under atresia ones.)
dupe -- an easily deceived person; a person who functions as the tool of another person or power; to deceive an unwary person; a
person who is tricked or swindled.
dura, dura mater -- the outermost of the three layers of the meninges surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. The other two are the pia mater
and the arachnoid mater.
duration-- How long an event or behavior lasts.
duration measure -- how long an event or behavior lasts.
dwarf -- a mythical humanoid creature associated with death. Dwarfs have pale skin, dark hair, a connection with the earth, following animistic
traditions. They are skilled craftsmen, and most of their magic involves mining, craftmanship, and metallurgy. They are between 3 and 4 feet tall, big-
headed, and bearded. A dwarf can live to be about 250 years old. A group of dwarfs is a towering. A dwarf baby is a dwarrow.
dwarfism -- a possibly disrespectful word for abnormally short height due to genetic or hormonal disorders. Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder
responsible for 70% of cases of dwarfism. Don't use this word. I don't know. But just don't.
DWI scan -- see diffusion-weighted imaging.
dyadic relationships -- relationships involving two individuals who develop and maintain a significant affiliation over time.
dynamic -- in the context of orthotics, capable of active movement.
dynamic assessment -- type of assessment in which adults give clues, leads, and hints or ask questions or pose problems to see what the person being assessed can do, both with and
without assistance. It builds on conceptions of children's learning based on insights from Vygotsky and cognitive psychologists.
dynamic splints -- adaptive or assistive devices designed to support or position the body to allow for more productive movements.
dynamic systems perspective -- a view that regards the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as a dynamic, integrated system. A change in any part of the system leads the
child to reorganize his or her behavior so the various components of the system work together again but in a more complex and effective way.
dynamic systems theory of motor development -- a theory that views new motor skills as reorganizations of previously mastered skills that lead to more effective ways of exploring and
controlling the environment. Each new skill is a product of central nervous system development, movement possibilities of the body, the goal the child has in mind, and environmental supports
for the skill.
dysarthria -- also called slurred speech -- involves disturbances in control over speech muscles. Thus dysarthria is grouped in the category of motor speech or speech motor disorders.
Dysarthria occurs due to impairment or damage to the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves). The speech muscles themselves may be impaired, weak, or paralyzed, or the areas of the
brain responsible for coordinating their function may be affected or damaged. This disorder could also occur due to tumors in the nervous system or a traumatic brain injury. Degenerative
diseases such as Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, Huntington's chorea, syphilis, and other neurological diseases are other causes of dysarthria.
This can be seen in children due to paralysis, weakness, altered muscle tone, or incoordination of the muscles used in speaking. Conditions such as cerebral palsy can also cause this.
There are many types of dysarthria, based on the site of the lesion: see flaccid dysarthria, spastic dysarthria, ataxic dysarthria, hyperkinetic dysarthria, and hypokinetic dysarthria.
dyscalculia -- an impairment in the ability to solve mathematical problems or to comprehend mathematical concepts; a mathematical disability in which a person has a difficult time solving
arithmetic problems and grasping math concepts; learning disability.
dysentery -- a disease characterized by severe diarrhea with passage of mucus and bloody stool, caused by an infection; a group of gastrointestinal disorders characterized by
inflammation of the intestines, particularly the colon. Features are abdominal pain and cramps, straining at stool, and watery diarrhea (or stools containing blood or mucus). It is most often
caused by shigellosis, amebiasis, balantidiasis, giardiasis, and cryptosporidiosis, viruses, or parasitic worms.
dysfluency -- A complex fluency disorder of speech affecting the smooth flow of words, which may involve repetition of sounds or words, prolonged sounds, facial grimaces, muscle
tension, and other involuntary physical movements; hesitations, repetitions, omissions, or extra sounds in speech patterns; see stuttering.
dysfluent -- speech disorder in which the speaker repeats a beginning sound or a word.
dysfunctional -- when institutions and social structures have a detrimental effect on a society.
dysfunctional family -- family in which the parents demonstrate negative or destructive behavior toward each other and/or toward their children.
dysgenesis -- defective or abnormal development of an organ.
dysgraphia -- writing disability in which a person finds it hard to form letters or write within a defined space; learning disability in the areas of processing and reporting information in
dyskinesia -- a condition caused by noncortical cerebral damage; an impairment in the ability to control movements characterized by spasmodic or repetitive motions.
dyskinetic cerebral palsy -- type of "extrapyramidal" cerebral palsy often involving abnormalities of the basal ganglia and manifesting as rigidity, dystonia, and choreoathetosis.
dyslexia -- A language-based impairment in the ability to read or comprehend written language. May also be called reading disability, learning disability, or reading disorder; cause and
dyslogistic -- uncomplimentary.
dysmenorrhea -- menstrual cramps and discomfort.
dysmorphic -- malformed, deformed. Unusual facial appearance as a result of a genetic disorder.
dysmorphophobia -- fear of deformity.
dysmotility -- abnormal motility of the gut.
dysostosis -- an abnormal bony formation.
dyspareunia -- painful sexual intercourse, experienced by the woman when the penis is inserted into the vagina.
dysphagia -- difficulty in swallowing function.
dysphasia -- impairment of speech consisting of lack of coordination and failure to arrange words in proper order; due to a central brain lesion; also known as language disorder. May
also be considered a learning disability.
dysphonia -- a voice impairment or speech disorder characterized by difficulty in speaking, usually evidenced by hoarseness. It is often due to vocal cord dysfunction.
dysphoria -- generalized feeling of anxiety, restlessness accompanied by depression.
dysplasia – any abnormal development of tissues or organs (dysplastic).
dyspnea -- difficult or labored breathing; shortness of breath. Dyspnea is a sign of a serious disease of the airway, lungs, or heart.
dyspraxia -- inability to perform coordinated movements despite normal function of the central and peripheral nervous system and muscles; learning disability.
dysprosium -- atomic number 66, symbol Dy; a soft, silvery rare earth element of the lanthanide series; obtained from erbium and holmium; used in nuclear reactors; discovered in 1886 by
Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran.
dysraphism -- incomplete closure of the neural tube which can be complete or partial.
dysrhaphic states -- see midline defects.
dysthymia -- a mind form of depression characterized by a mood disturbance that is present most of the time and is associated with feelings of low self-esteem, hopelessness, poor
concentration, low energy, and changes in sleep and appetite.
dystychophobia -- fear of accidents.
dystocia -- structural abnormalities of the uterus that may cause premature or prolonged labor.
dystonia -- a disorder of the basal ganglia associated with altered muscle tone leading to contorted body positioning.
dystonic cerebral palsy -- a form of dyskinetic cerebral palsy, the prominent feature of which is dystonia.
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