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1:6:1 classroom -- special education classroom consisting of one teacher, six students, and one teacher's aide.

1:12:1 classroom -- special education classroom consisting of one teacher, twelve students, and one teacher's aide.

5p- syndrome -- see
Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

45,X --
see Turner syndrome.

47,X -- see
XXX, XXXX, and XXXXX syndromes.

504/ADA plan -- a written plan that provides for reasonable accommodations or modifications in assessment and instruction as a means to "create a fair
and level playing field" for students who qualify as disabled under
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA).

Aarne-Thompson Tale Types --
a classification system for folktales. (See illustration.)

Aarskog-Scott syndrome (
faciodigitogenital dysplasia [FDGY]) -- short stature, brachydactyly, widow's peak, broad nasal bridge with small nose, hypertelorism, shawl scrotum,
cryptorchidism
, learning disabilities and behavioral problems are present in a subset of patients, ptosis, eye movement problems, strabismus, orthodontic problems, occasional
cleft lip/palate
. Caused by mutations in the FGD1 gene at Xp11.21; X-linked recessive with partial expression in some females; rare autosomal dominant cases reported.

abacus -- a tool composed of beads on vertical rods that is used by students with visual impairments to help them with mathematical calculations.

abaft -- toward or at the stern; aft.

abandoned baby laws -- see safe-haven laws.

abandonment -- leaving a child alone or in the care of another under circumstances that suggest an intentional abdication of parental responsibility.

abattoir -- a slaughterhouse; massacre.

abdomen -- the portion of the body located between the diaphragm and the pelvic or hip bones. If the abdomen is swollen, it is called abdominal
distension.
(See illustration.)

abdominal cavity --
the body cavity that holds the bulk of the viscera. It is the space between the abdominal wall and the spine. It contains the lower part of the esophagus, the stomach,
small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and bladder.

abducens --
either of the sixth pair of cranial nerves that convey motor impulses to the rectus muscle on the lateral side of each eye.

abducted -- having part of the body moved away from the body's mid-line. (See illustration.)

abduction --
limbs move outward, away from the body. (See illustration.)

ABC-X Family Crisis Model --
a theoretical model of family crisis in which A denotes the stressor, B denotes the family's crisis-meeting resources, C denotes the
family's definition of the stressor, and X denotes the crisis (
Reuben Hill).

abhor -- to regard with extreme repugnance; loathe; hate.

ability grouping -- characteristic of any program in which school personnel use test scores or school performance to assign same-grade students at similar levels to groups or classes with
markedly different levels of academic preparation.

ability to manage stress and crisis effectively -- one of the six major qualities (commonly found in emotionally healthy families) identified by researchers working within the family
strengths framework.

ablution -- the washing of one's body or a part of it as in a religious rite; or a building housing bathing and toilet facilities on a military base (British).

ablutophobia -- fear of bathing.

abnegation -- denial, especially self-denial.

aborning -- while being born or produced.

abortifacient -- anything used to induce abortion.

abortion -- expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before it is sufficiently developed to survive on its own; commonly used to describe only artificially induced terminations of pregnancy.

ABR -- see auditory brainstem response.

abrasive --
tending to wear away by rubbing; causing irritation.

abrogate -- to abolish by authoritative action; to treat as nonexistent; annul.

abruptio placenta -- separation of the placenta from the uterus before the baby is delivered. Complete separation brings about immediate
death of the fetus. Because it often results in severe bleeding, it can also cause maternal death.
Cesarean section must be performed
immediately and quickly (also called
placental abruption). (See illustration.)

abscesses --
localized collections of pus in cavities caused by the disintegration of tissue. They are usually the consequence of bacterial
infections.

absence seizures --
generalized seizures characterized by brief lapses of consciousness, usually lasting no more than 10 seconds. Also called 'petit mal' seizures. Eye blinking and
twitching of the mouth may accompany these seizures. The person has a brief interruption of consciousness and appears unresponsive. They may appear "blank" or "staring" without any
other indication of a seizure except fluttering eyelids. The seizures may go unnoticed.
Simple absence seizures are just stares. Complex absence seizures include changes in muscle
activity, such as eye blinks, tasting movements of the mouth, hand movements, contracting or relaxing muscles. Complex absence seizures last more than 10 seconds, generally. Atypical
absence seizures commonly last more than 10 seconds, with a gradual beginning and ending. The person will stare but is often somewhat responsive. Many people who have atypical
absence seizures have
Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.  

absinthe --
a green liqueur which is flavored with wormwood, anise, and other aromatic herbs and commercial production of which is banned in many countries for health concerns; also a
liqueur resembling absinthe; a group of demons.

absolute risk -- refers to the rate of occurrence of disability due to a teratogen. For instance, children of mothers who are chronic alcoholics have a 45% chance of having Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome. There are no absolute teratogens, however. An absolute risk for developmental delay would only happen if there were a diagnosed syndrome or disability, and the
characteristics are known.

absolute teratogens -- there are no absolute teratogens.

absorption -- the process by which the products of digestion are transferred from the intestinal tract into the blood or lymph or by which substances are taken up by the cells.    

abstemious --
marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or alcohol; reflecting much restraint.    

abstruse --
difficult to comprehend; recondite; scholarly; erudite; learned; abstract; metaphysical; intangible; impalpable; difficult; obscure; elusive; over-subtle; jesuitic.

abuse -- to mistreat, attack, or cause harm to another individual.

academic content standards -- standards that define the knowledge, skills, and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects.

academic development -- the development of abilities needed for school-related activities, including reading, writing, and mathematics.

academic preschool and kindergarten programs -- educational programs in which teachers structure young children's learning, teaching letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and other
academic skills through formal lessons, often using repetition and drill.

academic readiness skills -- abilities needed for school-related activities including reading, writing, and mathematics.

academic redshirting -- the practice of postponing children's entry into kindergarten to allow another year for growth and maturity.

academic skills -- skills needed to achieve within a school setting, including reading, writing, mathematics, and problem-solving.

academic (preacademic) skills curriculum model -- a model that focuses on reading, writing, arithmetic, and other skills needed in a school setting.

acarophobia -- fear of itching.

acceleration -- involves students skipping one or more grades in order to experience higher levels of instruction and/or attending a higher grade level program for part of the school day.

acceleration programs -- educational programs that encourage children to move rapidly through the usual course work, compressing the time usually spent in each course (a la Billy
Madison); a process whereby students are allowed to achieve at a rate that is consistent with their capacity.

accent -- a normal variation in the surface characteristics of a language. When referring to pronunciation, the syllable most emphasized.

acceptance -- the feeling of being loved and appreciated, contributes to self esteem; acceptation.

accessibility -- adaptations of the environment aimed at equalizing participation opportunities for persons with disabilities.

accessibility, parental -- the type of parental involvement that occurs when a parent is in the physical presence of a child but is not interacting directly with that child.

accessory nerves -- eleventh cranial nerves that arise from the medulla and spinal cord which supply the pharynx and muscles of the upper chest, back, and shoulders.

access technology -- high-tech and low-tech devices and software that allow persons with visual impairments to gain access to computers and other forms of information.

acciaccatura -- grace note, an embellishing note usually written in a smaller size.

accident -- an unexpected or unplanned event that may result in physical harm or injury.

accommodating style -- a style of conflict resolution characterized by non-assertive but cooperative behavior; accommodaters subjugate their own wants and needs to those of others.

accommodation -- According to Piaget, an alteration of existing cognitive structures to allow for new information; involves a change of understanding; a change in assessment procedures
that allows a child to participate in the assessment but does NOT alter what the assessment measures or its comparability; takes in new information, balances with previous knowledge, and
adjusts response.

accommodation (special education) -- A change in how a student gains access to the curriculum or demonstrates his or her learning that does not substantially alter the content or level of
instruction.

accommodation (mental) -- changing an existing mental schema (pattern) to fit new information.

accommodation (visual) -- the process by which the eye adjusts to focus on near objects.

accountability -- being held responsible for something, such as holding schools, administrators, and teachers responsible for student achievement.

accreditation -- voluntary submission to a standard through a review process, usually consisting of a self-study and a verification.

accrue -- supervene; add up; total; be received; come in; derive from; flow from; come from; issue from.

acculturation -- the inter-meshing of cultural traits and values with those of the dominant culture.

acculturative stress -- stress associated with making a transition from one culture to another.

accuracy -- a theory's ability to predict future events or explain past ones correctly; one of Sidman's six criteria against which a theory should be measured.

acedia -- ennui; state of torpor or listlessness; spiritual apathy.

acerophobia, acerbophobia -- fear of sourness.

acervuline -- aggregated, heaped up, bundled, collected or localized.

acetabulum -- the deep socket on the outer surface of the pelvis (hip bone) into which the head of the femur (thigh bone) fits to form the hip joint. The acetabulum is the point where the
three components of the pelvis (
ilium, ischium, and pubis) meet.

acetylcholine -- a common neurotransmitter, particularly involved in long-term memory formation. Specifically released at neuromuscular junctions, it's present at higher levels during rest
and sleep. These junctions are at the terminal between a
motor nerve axon and a skeletal muscle fiber.

achalasia --
a disorder of the esophagus, which affects the movement of food toward the stomach. Symptoms are backflow of food, chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, heartburn, and
unintentional weight loss. It is a rare disorder.

achievement tests -- a measurement of the knowledge and/or skills a student possesses. Although often thought to assess what a student has achieved in school, some commercially
published achievement tests contain many items measuring a student's out of school learning or the students' inherited academic aptitudes.

achluophobia -- fear of darkness.

Achondroplasia -- the most common form of short stature, associated with disproportionately shortened limbs, relatively large head, prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, trident-
shaped hand, and normal intelligence; apneic episodes,
hydrocephalus, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, clonus, may be cervical spinal cord compression. Caused by a point mutation in the
gene coding for fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 on FGFR3 (4p16.3). 80% of cases are new mutations with
autosomal dominant inheritance when passed from an affected individual; 1 of
every 15,000 to 25,000 live births. Prenatal diagnosis is available for this condition.

acid base balance -- in metabolism, the balance of acid to base necessary to keep the pH of the blood neutral.

acidotic -- having too much acid in the bloodstream. The normal pH is 7.42; acidosis is generally less than 7.30 (acidosis).

acid pops -- in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a kind of candy sold in Honeydukes Sweetshop in Hogsmeade.

acid reflux -- see gastroesophageal reflux disease.

acidulous -- somewhat acidic or sour in taste or manner; somewhat sarcastic.

acknowledgement -- when a child is born with a disability, parents sometimes go through several stages similar to grief. During this stage, parents mobilize their strengths to confront the
conditions created by the birth. They begin to involve themselves in the intervention and treatment process; are better able to comprehend information or directions provided by
professionals; may join advocacy groups concerning the child's disability; and accept the child. Also parents at this stage can direct their energies to challenges external to themselves.

acne -- a skin condition characterized by whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. It is most common in teenagers, but can happen at any age, even infancy. Chocolate, nuts, and other foods
do not seem to cause acne.

acolyte -- one who assists a member of the clergy in liturgical service by performing minor duties; one who attends or assists; follower.

acoustic -- sound as it relates to hearing and the production of speech; a part of the ear canal name (external acoustic meatus).

acoustiphobia -- fear of noise.

acquaintance rape -- non-consensual sex between adults who know each other.

acquiesce -- to passively accept; to accept, comply, or submit passively.

acquired -- a disability or condition that comes into existence during development through an accident, illness, or other unknown reasons.

acquired brain injury -- injury that may result from traumatic brain injury (TBI) or from strokes and other vascular accidents, infectious diseases, anoxic injuries (hanging, near
drowning), anesthetic accidents, severe blood loss,
metabolic disorders, and ingestion of toxic products.

acquired disabilities -- disabilities caused by accident, illness, or child abuse.

acquired hearing loss -- hearing loss that develops after a baby is born; also called adventitious hearing loss.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) -- severe infections, progressive motor and cognitive deficits, ultimate death. The first cases of AIDS were reported in 1981; in 1983 the
human immunodeficiency virus
was first identified. The virus is found in bodily fluids, including blood, semen, and breast milk. The virus attacks cells in the organs; targets the helper T4
lymphocyte, or CD4 cell, that coordinates the immune response; and can lie dormant for years. The child who has contracted AIDS appears to be chronically ill with symptoms including
intermittent fevers, recurrent diarrhea, failure to thrive, and/or acute weight loss;
lymph node, liver, and spleen enlargement; high risk for bacterial infections such as sepsis, meningitis,
pneumonia, internal organ abscesses, bone and joint infections, congestive heart failure, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, anemia, and/or kidney failure. Associated developmental
complications are cognitive deficits, fine and gross motor impairments,
speech and language delays, visual-spatial deficits, short-term memory problems, attention difficulties, deficits in
social behavior; maternal or
teratogenic cause.

acquired injury -- an injury that occurs after birth; not congenital.

acrocephaly --
a congenital abnormality of the skull; the top of the skull assumes a cone shape.

Acrocephalosyndactyly, type I -- see Apert syndrome.

Acrocephalosyndactyly, type II --
see Carpenter syndrome.

Acrocephalosyndactyly, type V --
see Pfeiffer syndrome.

Acrofacial Dysostosis (Nager syndrome) -- migrognathia (small jaw), malar hypoplasia (underdeveloped cheeks), downward slant of the eyelids, high nasal bridge, external ear defects,
occasional
cleft lip or palate, asymmetric limb anomalies (hypoplastic thumb or radius [a bone in the lower arm]), scoliosis, severe conductive hearing loss, occasional heart or kidney
defects,
intellectual disability present in ~16%. Caused by mutation on chromosome 9q32, CFP37 gene. Most cases are new mutations with evidence of autosomal dominant and rare
autosomal recessive
.

acromantula --
a gigantic, poisonous black spider whose legspan may reach up to 15 feet. They are of near human intelligence and are capable of human speech. Their head, body, and
legs and covered in thick black fur that turns gray with old age. Acromantulas are native to the jungles of Borneo and were first sighted by humans in 1794. A group of acromantulas is a
venom. An acromantula baby is a webling.

acromegaly -- a chronic metabolic disorder in which there is too much growth hormone and the bodily tissues gradually enlarge. Symptoms are body odor, carpal tunnel syndrome,
weakness, fatigue, enlarged bones of the face, enlarged feet, enlarged hands, enlarged glands in the skin, enlarged jaw and tongue, excessive height, excessive sweating, headache,
hoarseness, joint pain, limited joint movement,
sleep apnea, swelling of bony areas around a joint, thickening of the skin, skin tags, widely spaced teeth, widened fingers or toes, excessive
hair growth in women, unintentional weight gain. It occurs in about 6/100,000 adults.

acrophobia, altophobia -- fear of heights.

acrostic -- a poem in which the first letter, syllable or word of each line spells out a word or message, such as Large Eyes Madagascar Unmistakable Ringtail (LEMUR) or Timid Afraid
Panicky Intruder? Runs! (TAPIR).

ACTH -- adrenocorticotropin hormone. This stress related substance is produced by the pituitary gland. It's released into the body as a result of injury, emotion, pain, infections, or other
trauma.

actin -- protein involved in muscle contraction.

actin filaments -- one of the contractile elements in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle fibers.

actinium -- atomic number 89, symbol Ac; a silvery white highly radioactive element found in uranium ores, occurs as a decay product of uranium; half-life 21.5 years; it is about 150 times
more radioactive than radium; used as a source of alpha rays and neutrons; discovered in 1899 by
Andre Debierne.

action/reaction service model --
professionals work together only in the sense that they prescribe or teach another member of the chain that is linked by a common client.

action research -- informal collection of information about a child or children, non-standardized.

action-specific energy -- the energy associated with a signed stimulus.

active learning -- being involved in learning situations by asking questions, seeking help, and initiating activities.

active listening -- technique for clarifying the message and the feelings; attending to the speaker by hearing, interpreting, sorting, and analyzing what is being said or communicated.

activity areas or centers -- organized space within a classroom dedicated to activities based on a theme or developmental domain. Typically designed to accommodate small groups of
children and a teacher.

activity-based approach -- Instruction that is integrated into the daily activities or play rather than given as a separate lesson or instructional activity.

activity-based curriculum -- the activity-based curriculum builds on the consistent use of daily activities, events, and interactions. It is based on a naturalistic environment that encourages
participating in meaningful activities of interest and relevance to children, and it includes activities that promote interactions between children.

activity-based intervention -- systematic distribution of teaching and learning across routine activities, planned activities, or child-initiated activities at school and at home.

activity concentration -- presenting learning materials in a way that shows their relationship to each other. Example: Magic markers and paper displayed together rather than separately.

activity patterns -- varying activities so that the new and old are in an interesting as well as developmentally appropriate pattern for young children.

activity task analysis -- analysis that identifies each step that is needed to master a certain task.

actualizing tendency -- Rogers: the built in motivation present in every life form to develop to its potential to the fullest extent possible; the "you" you will become, if all goes well.

actual self -- how adolescents see themselves.

acuity -- a measure of the sharpness and clarity of vision. It is determined usually with an assessment such as the Snellen chart.

acumen --
keenness and depth of perception, discernment, or discrimination, especially in practical matters.

acute -- The sudden onset of an illness; usually of short duration; a chronic problem may have periodic acute episodes.

acute condition -- medical disorder that is serious and requires immediate attention, but that can be treated and probably cured.

acute fatty liver -- an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver, caused by obesity, diabetes, excessive consumption of alcohol, IV drugs, and exposure to toxic
substances. Symptoms are loss of appetite, great big liver, and abdominal discomfort; usually reversible if the offense is withdrawn.
(Illustration over there just
shows a liver, not an acute fatty liver, though it is cute.)

acute health problem --
crisis point of disease is rapidly reached.

acute inflammatory peripheral neuropathy -- ascending paralysis following a virus infection (also called Guillain-Barre syndrome).

acute lymphocytic (lymphoblastic or lymphoid) leukemia (ALL) -- a fast growing cancer of white blood cells. This is the most common form of leukemia in children. Symptoms are
similar to those listed below for AML.

acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) -- a fast-growing cancer of the blood and bone marrow. Symptoms are low numbers of healthy blood cells and high numbers of leukemia cells in
the blood. If
white blood cells are low (white blood cells fight infection), symptoms are fever and frequent infections. If red blood cells are low (red blood cells oxygenate the body),
symptoms are anemia, tiredness, shortness of breath, and pale skin. If
platelets are low (platelets control bleeding), symptoms are easy bleeding or bruising and tiny red spots under the
skin. Other symptoms are pain in the bones and/or joints, lack of appetite, headache, and vomiting.

acute polyneuropathy -- short-term ascending paralysis following a viral illness; most common is Guillain-Barre syndrome.

acute stress disorder --
an anxiety disorder characterized by a cluster of dissociative and anxiety symptoms occurring within one month of a traumatic event. (Dissociation is a
psychological reaction to trauma in which the mind tries to cope by "sealing off" some features of the trauma from conscious awareness.)
Acute stress disorder is caused by exposure to
trauma, which is a stressor that causes intense fear and, usually, involves threats to life or serious injury to oneself or others. Examples are rape, mugging, combat, natural disasters, etc. The
symptoms of stress disorder include one or more dissociative and anxiety symptoms combined with the avoidance of reminders of the traumatic event. Dissociative symptoms include
emotional detachment, temporary loss of memory, depersonalization, and derealization. Anxiety symptoms connected with acute stress disorder include irritability, physical restlessness, sleep
problems, inability to concentrate, and being easily startled. Other symptoms are muscle tension (shakiness, headaches), excessive sweating,
palpitations, shortness of breath, and various
gastrointestinal
symptoms.

acute stressors -- events that place strain on a family and occur as periodic incidents related to a child's disability.

ADA -- see Americans with Disabilities Act.

ADA plan / 504 -- A written plan that provides for reasonable accommodations or modifications in assessment and instruction as a means to "create a fair and level playing field" for students
who qualify as disabled under
Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

adapt -- to make or become fit (as for a specific or new use of situation) often by modification.

adaptability -- in family systems theory, this is a concept used to describe a family's ability to change in response to a crisis or stressful situation.

adaptable intervention model -- flexible procedures employed within non-categorical models, emphasizing the functionality of behavior rather than its developmental form or sequence.

adaptation -- in Piaget's theory, the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment. Made up of two complementary processes: assimilation and
accommodation.

adaptation phase -- the transition period of adjustment many parents experience after first learning that their child has a developmental delay.

adapted participation --
Use of an alternative means of participation (i.e., orient head or eye gaze instead of pointing, use of communication board instead of speaking.)

adaptive behaviors -- day to day knowledge and skills necessary for independence, including communication, self-care, social skills, home living, leisure, and self-direction. Deficits in
adaptive behavior comprise one component of identifying students with
intellectual disabilities.

adaptive coping skills -- those skills a child uses to meet personal needs and to adapt to the demands of the environment.

adaptive development -- The development of skills that promote independence and facilitate a child's ability to fit into his or her environment. According to PL 105-17, a developmental
delay is defined as a delay in one or more of 5 areas, including this one (the others are cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, and physical
development including vision and hearing).  

adaptive devices (assistive devices or equipment) -- equipment, such as a hearing aid, designed to improve body functioning.

adaptive equipment -- equipment that has been modified, such as a wheelchair, to meet the needs of a person with disabilities; mobility devices, prostheses, and prescribed alterations of
standard furnishings to meet the needs of  children with disabilities.

adaptive fit -- compatibility between demands of a task or setting and a person's needs and abilities.

adaptive instruction -- modifies the way in which instruction is delivered and the environment where the learning takes place in order to accommodate unique learner characteristics.

adaptive physical education -- physical education that is modified to address the needs of children with disabilities. This includes assessment and instruction, accurate assessment data,
IEP goals and objectives, benchmarks, least restrictive environment.

adaptive reflexes -- mature, automatic reflexes such as sucking or swallowing; see postural reflexes.

adaptive skills --
conceptual, social, and practical skills that facilitate an individual's functioning in community, family, and school settings.

ADD -- attention deficit disorder; In 1997, ADD and ADHD were allowed to be considered disabilities, according to IDEA, under the umbrella of
Other Health Impairments.

addiction --
the quality of being physically dependent on a habit-forming drug.

additions -- articulation disorder in which a person inserts extra sounds in spoken words.

adduction -- limbs move inward toward the body. (See illustration.)

adenine --
one of the four nucleotides (chemicals) that comprise DNA. It pairs with thymine.

adenocarcinoma -- cancer of the epithelial tissues (skin, glands, etc.) that originates in glandular tissue.

adenoidectomy -- the surgical removal of the adenoids.

adenoids -- lymphatic tissue of the nasopharynx. (See illustration.)

adenoma sebaceum --
benign cutaneous growths usually seen around the nose; occurs in persons with tuberous sclerosis; resembles acne. (See illustration above.)

adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA deficiency) -- inherited combined immunodeficiency syndrome in which children have repeated severe infections; caused by a deficiency of the
enzyme adenosine deaminase;
autosomally recessive inheritance. Related complications are early death, neurological deficits, failure to thrive, bone abnormalities. There are prenatal
diagnostic tests available for this deficiency. Incidence is rare, recurrent risk for siblings, 25%.  

adenoside triphosphate (ATP) -- a compound with energy-storing phosphate bonds that is the main energy source for all cells.

adequate yearly progress -- According to No Child Left Behind, each state has to define and then report how their school districts and schools are meeting the goal of proficiency in
math, reading, and science by 2014. States are required to set annual progress targets and annual measurable objectives for student progress and ensure that school districts test at least
95% of their students.

ADHD -- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In 1997, ADD and ADHD were allowed to be considered disabilities, according to IDEA, under the umbrella of Other Health Impairments.

ADHD --
combined type -- subtype of ADHD in which individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity.  

ADHD -- predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type -- subtype of ADHD in which individuals have as a primary symptom a high amount of movement and an inability to "put on the brakes"
before acting.

ADHD -- predominantly inattentive type -- subtype of ADHD in which individuals' inability to attend is a primary symptom.

ad hominem -- see irrelevant attack on opponent.

adipose -- fat cells.  

adipose connective tissue -- large internal fat droplets that distend cells so that cytoplasm is reduced to a thin layer and the nucleus is displaced to the edge of the cells. It most often
appears in groups. When it accumulates in large numbers, it becomes the predominant cell type and forms adipose tissue. It serves as a storage site for
lipids, pads and protects certain
organs and regions of the body, and forms an insulating layer under the skin that helps regulate body temperature.

adjective -- word that modifies (or more fully describes) a noun or a pronoun. (My crazy cat is snoring.)

adjure -- to command solemnly under or as if under oath or penalty of a curse; to urge or advise earnestly.

adjustment -- the ability of a child to adapt socially and emotionally.

ad-lib (ad libitum) -- Latin for "at one's pleasure"; generally shortened to "ad lib" as an adjective or adverb or "ad-lib"  as a verb or noun; freely; speaking using words that are not scripted.

adolescence -- the developmental period between childhood and adulthood. (See illustration.)

adolescent egocentrism --
an adolescent's belief that his or her thoughts and ideas are unique and are not understood by others.

adolescent stage -- time starting about 10 to 16 years of age, depending on physical maturity, and extending to adulthood.

adoption -- legal process by which adult couples or singles voluntarily take a child born of other parents and raise him or her as their own
child.

adrenal cortex -- the perimeter of the adrenal gland.

adrenal gland -- orange colored endocrine glands located on the top of both kidneys. They are triangular shaped and measure about 1/2 inch in height and 3 inches in length. Each gland
consists of a medulla (the center) which is surrounded by the adrenal cortex. The medulla is responsible for producing
epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline). The cortex produces
other hormones necessary for fluid and electrolyte (salt) balance in the body such as
cortisone and aldosterone. The cortex also makes sex hormones, but this only becomes a problem if
there is overproduction.

adrenal hyperplasia -- a common inherited form of adrenal insufficiency. It is due to mutations in the genes coding for several enzymes needed to produce vital adrenal cortex hormones:
cortisol and aldosterone. These disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Symptoms are short height, early signs of puberty, acne, irregular periods, possible trouble
getting pregnant, excess facial hair, dehydration, low blood pressure, low blood sugar level, low body salt levels, altered development of the external genitalia, and benign testicular tumors
and infertility.

adrenaline -- a potent stimulant of the autonomic nervous system. It increases blood pressure, heart rate, and other physiological changes needed for a "fight or flight" response. Under
conditions of stress, fear, or excitement, this hormone is released from the adrenal gland into the bloodstream. When it reaches the liver, it stimulates the release of
glucose for rapid
energy. Abrupt increases caused by anger can  constrict heart vessels, requiring the heart to pump with higher pressure. Also known as
epinephrine.

Adrenoleukodystrophy (X-linked ALD) -- progressive neurological disorder of white matter resulting from accumulation of very long chain fatty acids; both childhood and adult onset
forms occur. Adult onset form is characterized mainly by adrenal insufficiency and usually presents with
peripheral neuropathy (disturbance of the peripheral nerves) and causes slowly
progressive
paraparesis (partial paralysis) and impotence. Only 20% of adult onset cases experience brain involvement. Boys with the childhood onset form are symptom free at birth and
develop typically until the end of the first decade. Symptoms often begin with
behavioral problems and progress to include spasticity, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, speech
disturbance, progressive intellectual deterioration, seizures, endocrine abnormalities, conductive hearing loss. Caused by a mutation in ABCD1 gene at Xq28, X-linked recessive.

Adrenoleukodystrophy, neonatal form --
a disorder of peroxisomes (minute organelles in certain cells that are involved in the processing of long chain fatty acids) characterized by
congenital
hypotonia, onset in early infancy of seizures, adrenal insufficiency, mild dysmorphic facial features (high forehead, epicanthal folds, broad nasal bridge, and forward-tipping
nostrils),
intellectual disability, cataracts, visual and auditory impairments. Developmental progress is achieved during the first year of life followed by regression. Death in early childhood
is usual, but there are known cases of affected individuals surviving until the second or third decade of life. Caused by an absence of
peroxisomes, resulting from mutations in a number of
autosomal peroxin (PEX) genes,
autosomal recessive.

adroit --
having or showing skill, cleverness, or resourcefulness in handling situations, clever, dexterous.

adulation -- excessive or slavish admiration or flattery.

Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) -- a semi-structured psychodynamic interview in which the subject is encouraged to talk about their early attachments, their feelings about their parents,
and to describe any significant losses and childhood trauma. The transcripts are then rated, not so much for content as for style, picking up features like coherence of the narrative and
capacity to recall painful events. Subjects are classified into one of four categories: secure autonomous, dismissing, preoccupied, and unresolved/disorganized. When given to pregnant
mothers the AAI has been shown to predict the attachment status of the infants at one year with 70% accuracy;
Mary Main.

adult-directed activities --
see teacher-guided instruction.

adult service agencies -- agencies with a major focus on providing services and supports to help people with disabilities become more independent as adults. Adult service agencies
include rehabilitation services, social services, mental health services, and the like.

adumbrate (AD-um-brayt) -- to foreshadow vaguely; intimate; to suggest, disclose, or outline partially; overshadow; obscure.

advance directives -- In children with severe disabilities, the term is used to define the level of intervention a parent wants provided in the event of a life-threatening emergency or illness of
the child.  

adventitious -- a disability that develops from disease or trauma any time after birth.

adventitiously blind -- a profound or severe visual impairment that occurs after the age of 2 years.

adventitious deafness -- see post-lingual deafness.

adventitious hearing loss --
hearing loss that develops after birth; also called acquired hearing loss.

adventitious visual impairment -- any visual impairment that develops after birth.

adverb -- word that modifies (or more fully describes) verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs, or any other part of language that isn't a noun or a pronoun. (My ridiculously crazy cat is
snoring.)

adversary -- one that contends with, opposes, or resists; enemy.

adversary (divorce) procedure -- a divorce procedure that requires one member of a married couple to file a complaint of wrongdoing against the other member.

advise -- to give advice to; counsel; inform; notify; consult; confer.

advocacy -- supporting and/or favoring the cause of another.

advocacy group -- individuals who work collectively for a particular cause or a particular person.

advocate -- one who maintains, defends, or pleads the cause of another; in early childhood terms, an advocate is someone who furthers the principles and issues of the
field by speaking to others about such issues.
(See illustration.)

Aegis --
goat, originally the short goat-skin cloak of Zeus; a shield used by Zeus and later his daughter Athena, and occasionally by Apollo; protection; sponsorship; auspices.

aeipathy -- continued passion; unyielding disease.

aeneous -- brassy; a type of golden-green.

aeolian -- pertaining to, of, related to, caused by or like the wind of Aeolus.

aeonian -- continuing forever; eternal.

aerial -- of, in, or caused by the air; existing or living in the air.

aeronausiphobia -- fear of airplanes.

aerophobia, airphobia -- fear of air and drafts.

Aesir -- in Norse myths, the name for the gods. (See illustration.)

Aesopian --
of, relating to, or characteristic of Aesop and his fables; conveying an innocent meaning to an outsider but a hidden meaning to a member of a
conspiracy or underground movement

aesthetic movement -- an artistic movement in the 1880s in the US. The chief characteristic was its concentration on the "science of the beautiful" or the
"philosophy of taste."
(See illustration.)

aesthete --
person who appreciates art or beauty.

aesthetics -- sensitivity to what is beautiful; the study of beauty.

aesthetic sensitivity -- keen perception of the characteristics and complexity of the arts and the interrelationships of the arts with other domains; a characteristic
of many students who are gifted.

aestival -- pertaining to, relating, designating, or of summer.

aeviternal -- eternal, endless, never-ending.

affect -- Compared to "effect", this is how to use "affect": 1) can be used as a noun to describe facial expression (The young man with schizophrenia had a flat affect); 2) used as a verb  
(How does the crime rate affect hiring levels by local police forces?); 3) to influence (The arrow affected the aardvark.) Most of the time affect is a verb. Another word for
emotion. Compare
to
effect.

affection -- Freud: aim-inhibited sexuality. We connect affectionately because we can't spend all of our time having sex.

affective -- social emotional responses that influence the behavior of others.

affective assessment -- a measurement of a student's interests, attitudes, and/or values.

affective disorders -- psychiatric diseases with multiple aspects, including biological, behavioral, social, and psychological factors. Major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, and anxiety
disorders are the most common affective disorders. The effects of these disorders -- such as difficulties in interpersonal relationships and an increased susceptibility to substance abuse --
are major concerns for parents, teachers, physicians, and the community.
Affective disorders can result in symptoms ranging from mild and inconvenient to severe and life-threatening; the
latter account for more than 15% of deaths due to suicide.

affective readiness (for reading) -- a prerequisite to reading involving the child's positive self-concept.

afferent -- in the nervous system, afferent refers to the signals sent from the periphery to the brain.

affiliated kin -- unrelated individuals who are treated as if they are related.

affinal relatives -- relatives who are related only by marriage.

affix -- a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. They may be derivational like -ness or pre-, or inflectional like a plural -s and past tense -ed. Affixes form new words
(neologisms) by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation), or the end (suffixation) of words. (
undo, looking, saxomaphone, ascattered, speedometer,
dark
ness, agreement, friendship, etc.)

afflatus --
strong creative impulse, especially as a result of divine inspiration; inspiration.

AFP -- see alpha-fetoprotein.

A-frame relationship --
a type of relationship in which partners have very weak self-identities and are extremely dependent on each other and on the relationship.

afterbirth -- see placenta.

afterimage --
after staring at a page of solid color for about 30 seconds, then looking at a dot on a page of either gray or white, our eyes will see color on the blank page. The color is usually
the complement or near complement of the color first looked at.

After School care -- programs designed to care for children after the regular academic school day.

Ag -- atomic number 47, symbol for silver.

agape -- according to sociologist John Alan Lee's theory of the origin of love, one of the six basic styles of loving: altruistic love -- unselfish, self-giving, self-sacrificing love.

age appropriateness -- a component of the developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) guidelines, which refers to the need for the learning environment and curriculum to be based
on the typical development of children.

age-appropriate placement -- a child's educational placement in an instructional program consistent with chronological age rather than developmental level.

ageism -- a form of prejudice or discrimination in which one judges an older person negatively solely on the criterion of age.

age-level characteristics -- those features of children's development and behavior that are most common among a given age group.

agenesis – congenital absence of an organ or part, usually caused by a lack of primordial tissue and failure of development in the embryo.

agenesis of the
corpus callosum -- absence of the band of white matter that connects the two hemispheres of the brain.

age of viability -- the point at which postnatal survival is possible; the age at which the fetus can first survive if born early. Occurs sometime between the 22nd and 26th week of pregnancy.

age-out --
no longer qualify for certain services because of age.

aggression -- actions that injure people, things, or emotions. Freud: according to Freud, aggression is instinctive and innate.

aggressive communication -- a style of interpersonal communication that attempts to hurt or put down the receiver while protecting the aggressor's self esteem.

agility -- one of the four basic motor capacities with tremendous growth during the middle childhood years: Quicker and more accurate movements are evident in such movements as jumping
rope, hopscotch, tag, and soccer.

a-go-go -- of, relating to, or being a disco or the music or dances performed there; go-go; being in  a whirl of motion; being up-to-date-- often used postpositively.

agonist -- a medication that enhances certain neural activity; or a muscle that works in concert with another muscle to produce movement.

Agoraphobia -- fear of being in places where help might not be available, and is usually manifested by fear of crowds, bridges, or of being outside alone. Symptoms include: fear of being
alone, fear of losing control in public, fear of being in places where escape is difficult, becoming housebound, feelings of detachment or estrangement from others, feelings of helplessness,
dependence on others, feeling that the body is unreal, feeling that the environment is unreal, panic attacks, unusual temper or agitation with trembling or twitching, lightheadedness,
dizziness, excessive sweating, skin flushing, breathing difficulty, chest pain, nausea and vomiting, numbness and tingling, abdominal distress, confusion, fear of going crazy, fear of dying.

Freud
: the ego's method of self-limitation for avoiding the anxiety of acting out a sexual desire. Don't leave home without id.

agraphobia --
fear of sexual abuse.

agrarian societies -- agricultural societies in which parents or other kin members select marriage mates for their children.

agrizoophobia -- fear of wild animals.

agyria -- absence of normal convolutions on the surface of the brain.

agyiophobia, agyrophobia -- fear of streets.

Ahimsa -- the Hindu and Buddhist doctrine of refraining from harming any living being.

Aicardi Syndrome -- infantile spasms associated with congenital absence of the corpus callosum and abnormalities of the eyes. Cause is either X-linked dominant (gene linked to Xp22)
or new mutation. Associated complications are poorly controlled
seizures, severe intellectual disability, visual impairment. No prenatal diagnosis available. Incidence is rare, occurring
only in females; recurrent risk, rare in families. Can cause
deaf-blindness. X-linked dominant.

aichmophobia --
fear of knives and other sharp instruments.

AIDS --  see Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

AIDS-related dementia --
generalized cognitive and behavioral deterioration due to brain dysfunction caused by AIDS.

Aid to Families With Dependent Children -- a US government program discontinued in 1996 which provided aid to needy families or particular family members.

aileron -- small movable platforms on the back of plane wings that alter air movements.

ailurophile -- cat lover, one who loves or appreciates cats.

ailorphobia, aelurophobia -- fear of cats.

airborne transmission -- when germs are expelled into the air through coughs/ sneezes, and transmitted to another individual through tiny moisture
drops.
(See illustration.)

alabaster --
dense translucent, white or tinted, fine-grained gypsum.

Al-Anon -- a self-help group for families of alcoholics.

Alateen -- a support group for young people with alcoholic parents, based on the Alcoholic Anonymous model.

albinism -- lack of pigmentation in eyes, skin, and hair. It is caused by a defect of melanin production. The most severe kind of albinism is oculocutaneous albinism, in which there is pink
or white hair, skin, and iris color; vision problems also occur. Another kind of albinism, type 1 only affects the eyes. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a form of albinism caused by a single
gene. It can occur with a bleeding disorder, as well as with lung and bowel disease. Other disorders that may lead to localized albinism are
Chediak-Higashi syndrome, tuberous
sclerosis, and Waardenburg syndrome. As well as absence of color, other symptoms of albinism can be strabismus, photophobia, nystagmus, and vision problems or blindness.
Albinism is a
congenital condition. It is caused by several different mutated genes, depending on the type of albinism; chromosome pairs 11, 15, 9, 5, X, and 1; sometimes autosomal
recessive.

albumin -- the most abundant protein in the body.

albuminurophobia -- fear of kidney disease.

alcohol -- a legal and socially accepted drug that nevertheless is the leading cause of intellectual disability in children.

alcohol abuse -- a generic term that encompasses both alcoholism (addiction to alcohol characterized by compulsive drinking) and problem drinking (alcohol consumption that results in
functional disability).

alcoholic -- someone who consumes alcohol habitually.

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) -- a self-help group for alcoholics.

alcoholism -- addiction to alcohol characterized by compulsive drinking.

alcoholophobia -- fear of alcoholic drink.

Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD) -- part of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder; common birth defects are attention deficits, language difficulties, learning disabilities, impulse
behavior, and poor judgment.

Alcohol Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) -- part of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder; includes damage to the peripheral nervous system as well as the central
nervous system; symptoms include problems with coordination, weakness, seizures, memory loss, and sensory deficits.

aldosterone -- a hormone released by the adrenal glands. It helps the body regulate blood pressure. It increases the reabsorption of sodium and water and the release of potassium in the
kidneys. This action raises blood pressure.

alektrophobia -- fear of chickens.

Alexander disease -- a very rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by macrocephaly, exaggerated startle response, optic atrophy, intellectual decline, seizures, early
death,
hydrocephalus, demyelination, progressive spasticity, visual impairment; bulbar signs are present in some patients. Infantile (diagnosed less than 2 years old), juvenile
(diagnosed between age 2 and 12), and adult onset forms (diagnosed past age 13) have been found. Caused by a mutation in the GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) gene on 17q21
chromosome, usually new mutation but some
autosomal dominant.

alexithymie (alexy-timmy) -- having it hard to express verbally one's feelings.

alevin -- a young fish, especially a young salmon or trout.

algophobia -- fear of pain.

alien -- considered a creature from a planet other than earth. Aliens come in all shapes and sizes. Some appear to be living, breathing beings, and some appear to be robotic. The most
common alien is tall with extremely fine features, very pale, almond-shaped eyes which are slightly slanted and lined in black. A group of aliens is a ransom. An alien baby is a rearling.

alienate -- to estrange; to cause to become unfriendly or hostile.

alignment -- agreement between the expected outcomes of educational experiences (standards, goals), the curriculum, and assessment. Also used to indicate continuity in expectations from
one educational level to another.

aliment -- something that nourishes; food; to supply with sustenance or food .

alimentary tract (or canal) --
the mucous membrane-lined tube of the digestive system that extends from the mouth to the anus and through which food passes, digestion takes place, and
wastes are eliminated; it includes the
pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and intestines. Also called the digestive tract.

alimony -- court-ordered financial support to a spouse or former spouse following separation or divorce.

alimony myth -- according to Lenore Weitzman, the fallacious belief that most women profit from divorce by receiving high alimony payments.

alkalis -- groups of bases or caustic substances that are capable of neutralizing acids to form salts.

alkaptonuria -- a disorder caused by a mutation of the HAO gene on chromosome 3. HAO (homogentisic acid oxidase) is a liver enzyme which is lacking in people with alkaptonuria. This
disorder makes the body unable to break down certain amino acids (
tyrosine and phenylalanine). It is considered an inborn error of metabolism. Symptoms include black or inky urine,
ochronosi
s (black stained cartilage), arthritis, osteoarthritis, pain, stiffness, joint swelling, hardened aortic and mitral valves of the heart, darkening of ear cartilage and whites of the
eyes. In relation to other
inborn errors of metabolism, however, it is considered relatively benign. Alkaptonuria is autosomal recessive.

allegory --
a form of narrative that uses concrete images of objects, characters, and actions to stand for abstract concepts outside of the narrative. An allegory is an extended metaphor. In
an allegory the plot of the narrative as well as the abstract ideas are of interest. Allegories include
John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's Progress", and the parables in the New Testament.

allegretto -- music term; moderately fast tempo.

allegro -- in a quick, lively tempo; usually considered faster than allegretto but slower than presto.

allele -- each of two forms of a gene located at the same place on the autosomes.

allergies -- this involves two features: the production of immunoglobulin E, an antibody that circulates through the blood; and a mast cell (a specific cell that occurs in all body tissues but
is especially common in parts of the body that are typical sites of allergic reactions, including the nose, throat, lungs, skin, and
gastrointestinal tract). The tendency to develop allergies is
inherited. Common allergies are foods, medicines, dust mites, hay fever, pets, pollen, mold, lactose, latex, skin products, etc.

alleviate -- to allay; to lessen in pain or negative occurrence or consequence.

alliteration -- a series of words that have the same beginning sounds. The sounds within words can be repeated also (see assonance). (Trina Tweety tripped two twittering twins under a
twiggy tree.)

alliumphobia -- fear of garlic.

allodoxaphobia -- fear of others' opinions.

alloquy -- speaking to another; an address.

allowed foods -- foods that are eligible for reimbursement under School Lunch or Child Care Food Program Guidelines.

aluminium (aluminum) -- Atomic number 13, symbol Al; a silver metal; the most abundant metal in the earth's crust; discovered in 1825 by Hans Christian Oersted; used in making soda
cans, airplanes, and such.

allure -- attraction; temptation; to attract with something desirable.

alluvium -- unconsolidated sediments carried by water.

alobar holoprosencephaly -- a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) fails to develop into two hemispheres. This causes defects in the
development of the face and in brain structure and function. There are four classifications of
holoprosencephaly. Alobar holoprosencephaly is the most serious form, in which the brain fails
to separate, and is usually associated with severe facial anomalies. This form may be so severe that it often causes
miscarriage or stillbirth. The most severe of facial defects is cyclopia,
or the development of a single eye, located near the root of the nose, and a nose located above the eye. This is very rare
.

alopecia --
hair loss (different from male-pattern balding). (See picture.)

alphabet --
a standardized set of letters-- basic written symbols or graphemes -- each of which roughly represents a phoneme in a spoken language, either as it
exists now or as it was in the past. The word "alphabet" comes from "alpha" and "beta", the first two letters of the Greek alphabet.

alpha cells -- a type of cell in the pancreas. Within the pancreas, the alpha cells are located in the islets of Langerhans. They make and release glucagon,
which raises the level of
glucose in the blood.

Alpha Centauri --
also known as Rigil Kentarus, Rigil Kent, or Toliman. is the brightest star in the southern constellation Centaurus. It is actually a binary star system. It is the third single
brightest star in the night sky after Sirius and Canopus. Proxima Centauri is probably gravitationally associated with Alpha Centauri but is only 4.24 light years from our sun, making it the
closest star from our sun, with Alpha Centauri is 4.37 light years away.

alpha fetoprotein (AFP) -- fetal protein found in amniotic fluid and the serum of pregnant women. It is used to test for meningomyelocele and Down syndrome in the fetus. The test is
done by examination of a pregnant woman's blood.

alpha male or alpha female -- dominant, successful individual.

Alport syndrome -- an inherited disorder that damages tiny blood vessels in the kidneys called glomeruli, that filter waste. Symptoms are blood in the urine, loss of kidney function, and a
build-up of fluids and waste products in the body. Other symptoms are
decrease or loss of vision, loss of hearing, swelling around the eyes, and general bodily swelling. It is caused by a
mutation in a gene for a protein in connective tissue, called
collagen, (COL4A5 on the X chromosome), X-linked recessive. It can also be inherited in an autosomal recessive (COL4A3
gene or COL4A4 gene on chromosome 2) or
autosomal dominant (COL4A3 or COL4A4 gene on chromosome 2) way.  It is uncommon, most often affects males. One of the syndromes
which can cause
deaf-blindness.

Alstrom syndrome --
a very rare, hereditary genetic disorder (caused by a mutated ALMS1 gene on chromosome 2, autosomal recessive). Symptoms are extra sensitivity to light
(
photophobia), nystagmus, and degeneration of the retina. Hearing may also be affected, sensorineural hearing loss. People who have Alstrom syndrome are often more overweight as
children than their family members and also much shorter as adults. Sometimes the syndrome can caused
dilated cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart), type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol
and
triglycerides, problems with liver and kidney function, scoliosis, digestive disturbances, high blood pressure, and thyroid problems. One of the syndromes which can cause deaf-
blindness.

alterity -- otherness; the quality or state of being radically alien to the conscious self or a particular cultural orientation.

alternate assessments -- Assessments mandated by IDEA 2004 for students who are unable to participate in required state- or district-wide assessments. They ensure that all students,
regardless of the severity of their disabilities, are included in the state's accountability system.

alternate feet step climbing -- climbing stairs by alternating feet.

alternate form reliability -- the consistency of measured results yielded by different forms of the same test.

alternative assessment -- almost any type of assessment other than standardized tests and similar developmental inventories and achievement tests.

altocumulus cloud -- appear as parallel bands or rounded masses; typically a portion of the cloud is shaded; may appear in advance of a cold front; commonly followed by thunderstorms if
present on a warm and humid summer morning.

altostratus cloud -- uniform gray or bluish-gray sheet or layer, lighter in color than nimbostratus and darker than cirrostratus; can produce light precipitation; composed of either water
droplets or ice crystals.

altricial (al-TRISH-e-ul) -- designating or of birds whose newly hatched young are helpless and hence confined to the nest all day for some time: nidicolous.

altruism --
acts done to benefit others, without expectation of reward or recognition.

altruistic behavior -- actions that benefit another person, without any expected reward for the self.

altruistic egoism -- the process of cooperation in which one helps others to satisfy their needs, and they in turn help one to satisfy one's own needs.

altruistic parenthood -- a belief that parents are expected to take care of and provide for all of the children they bring into the world.

alveoli -- Small air sacs in the lungs. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged through their walls. (See illustration.)

Alzheimer's syndrome or disease --
the most common form of dementia; incurable, degenerative, terminal disease, first identified by
Alois Alzheimer in 1906.

amalgam -- an alloy of mercury and silver used in dental fillings.

amanuensis -- one employed to write from dictation or to copy manuscript.

amaranth -- deep-hued purple; a type of purple flower; used as a metaphor for immortality.

amathophobia -- fear of dust.

amaurosis -- blindness.

amaxophobia --
fear of riding in automobiles .

amber -- light brown; light yellow; fossilized resin.  

ambience --
atmosphere; a particular environment or surrounding influence; aura.  

ambiguity --
doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention; an unclear, indefinite, or equivocal word, meaning, expression; vagueness; deceptiveness; the possibility of interpreting an
expression in two or more distinct ways.
 

ambiguous genitalia --
a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl.  

ambiguous loss --
when a family member is physically absent but psychologically present, OR physically present but psychologically absent, the family experiences highly stressful feelings.
People need to find ways to accept a loss before they can move on through the grieving process, but this is difficult when there is significant ambiguity in the situation;
Pauline Boss.

ambition --
an earnest desire for some type of achievement or distinction, as power, honor, fame, or wealth, and the willingness to strive for its attainment.

ambivalent -- the feeling of being uncertain or fluctuating, especially when caused by an inability to make a choice; the coexistence within an individual of both positive and negative feelings
toward a person, object, or action.

ambivalent attachment -- characterized by inconsistent behavior toward a caregiver.

ambivalent singles -- unmarried persons who are not actively seeking mates but who are open to the idea of marriage.

amblyopia -- reduced vision in an eye that did not receive adequate use in early childhood; a vision problem that occurs when a child's eye does not get
enough use and the visual system in the brain does not develop properly, leading to poor vision in the affected eye. It usually affects one eye but may occur
in both eyes; unknown cause.
(See illustration.)

ambrosia --
the food of the gods; something overpoweringly delicious or fragrant.

ambulatory -- able to walk.

ambulophobia -- fear of walking.

amebiasis -- an infection of the intestines caused by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Symptoms are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fatigue, intestinal gas, rectal pain, unintentional weight
loss. Severe symptoms are abdominal tenderness, bloody stools, fever, and vomiting. But in 90% of people with amebiasis there are no symptoms. This condition is more common in areas
with poor sanitation and crowded living conditions. Entamoeba histolytica is spread through food and water contaminated with stools. It can also be spread person to person, particularly by
contact with the mouth or rectal areas.

ameliorate -- to make better; improve; enhance.

amelus -- individual exhibiting amelia (the congenital absence of one or more limbs).

amenable -- liable to be brought to account; answerable; capable of submission; suited; readily brought to yield, submit, or cooperate; inclined of favorably disposed in mind; willing.

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) -- an organization of professionals from many disciplines involved in the study and treatment of intellectual disabilities.

American Sign Language (ASL) -- a language with its own vocabulary and grammar used by the majority of people who are deaf in the United
States and Canada.
(See illustration.)

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) -- a professional organization concerned with communication disorders.

Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) -- civil rights legislation in the US that provides a mandate to end discrimination against people with
disabilities in private sector employment, all public services, public accommodations, transportation, and telecommunications (
PL 101-336, 1990).

americium -- atomic number 95, symbol Am; a white metallic transuranic element with half-lives from 25 minutes to 7,950 years; artificially
produced from plutonium, used as an alpha-particle source; discovered in 1945 by
G.T. Seaborg.

amethyst --
deep purple; a deep-purple gemstone.

amino acid -- One of the chief components of proteins; obtained from the individual's diet or manufactured by living cells.

amino acid disorders -- inborn errors of metabolism resulting from an enzyme deficiency involving amino acids, the building block of protein.

ammonia -- a colorless, pungent gas composed of nitrogen and hydrogen, NH₃.

amnesic aphasia --
see anomic aphasia.

amnesiphobia --
fear of amnesia.

amniocentesis -- a medical test for genetic abnormalities that can be done about the 16th week of
pregnancy; amniotic fluid is removed by a needle inserted through the abdominal wall and into the uterine
cavity.
(See picture.)

amnion -- a membrane that grows over the embryo and becomes filled with amniotic fluid, which protects
the embryo.
(See diagram.)

amniotic fluid -- Clear fluid that surrounds and protects the developing fetus. It acts as a physical buffer for fetal movements and physical
development. It is formed by fetal urine production and lung fluid secretion during fetal respirations. This fluid is sampled through amniocentesis.
(Indicated in the amniocentesis diagram.)

amniotic sac -- the membrane that encloses the fetus and holds the amniotic fluid, which insulates the fetus; amnion. (See illustration above.)

amoeba --
any of various one-celled aquatic or parasitic protozoans of the genus Amoeba or related genera, having no definite form and consisting of a mass of protplasm containing one or
more nuclei surrounded by a flexible outer membrane; moves by means of pseudopods.

amok -- in a murderously frenzied state; in a violently raging manner; in an undisciplined, uncontrolled, or faulty manner.

amorphous -- having no definite shape or form; being without definite character or nature; lacking organization or unity; having no real or apparent crystalline form.

ampersand -- &.

amphisbaena -- an ant-eating serpent with a head at each end, as thought it were not enough poison to be poured out of one mouth. If one head falls asleep, the other remains awake. An
amphisbaena has two or more scaly feet, particularly chicken feet and feathered wings. Its eyes glow like candles or lightning. Amphisbaenas live in the desert. They are good swimmers,
hypnotists, and burrowers. They are known for their speed. Its eye contact kills instantly when under a full moon. A group of amphisbaenas is a peculiarity. An amphisbaena baby is a quirk.

amphora -- ceramic, two-handled vase with a narrow neck, usually containing alcohol.

amplification -- assisting the emergence of behavior and  understanding that are within a child's zone of proximal development, rather than accelerating beyond
the child's ability to understand and perform.

amplification devices -- use of hearing aids or other electronic devices to increase the loudness of sound and reduce background noise so that select sounds can
be received and understood more easily.
(See picture.)

amputation --
the severing of a limb from the body because of a birth defect, disease, or accident.

amulet -- a charm against evil or impurity, often a piece of jewelry.

amychophobia -- fear of being scratched.

amygdala -- located in the middle of the brain, this almond shaped complex of related nuclei is a critical processor area for senses. Connected to the hippocampus, it plays a role in
emotionally laden memories. It contains a huge number of opiate receptor sites implicated in rage, fear, and sexual feelings.
(See illustration.)

amylase --
an enzyme that breaks starch down into sugar. It is present in human saliva, where it begins the chemical process of digestion.

amylin -- secreted by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans at the same time as insulin.

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) --
a disease of the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control voluntary muscle movement. Symptoms
usually don't develop until after age 50. Symptoms are loss of muscle strength and coordination. Breathing and swallowing muscles may be the first
muscles affected. Other symptoms are difficulty breathing, difficulty swallowing,
head drop, muscle cramps, progressive muscle weakness, paralysis,
speech problems, voice changes, drooling, weight loss, swelling in extremities. In about 10% of cases, ALS is caused by a genetic defect. In the other
90%, the cause is unknown. It affects 1/100,000 people. Also known as
Lou Gehrig's Disease.

amyotrophy -- progressive wasting and weakening of muscles.  

anablepophobia --
fear of looking up at high places .

anabolism -- the conversion of ingested food into products that can be used by the cells.  

anaclitic --
Freud: the kind of love that is directed toward an object, usually a parent. Contrast narcissistic.

anacoluthon (an-uh-kuh-LOO-thahn) --
syntactical inconsistency or incoherence within a sentence; a shift in an unfinished sentence from one syntactic construction to another.

anaerobic glucose metabolism -- see glycolysis.

anagrams -- words or phrases made by rearranging the letters of another word or phrase. Example: teachers -- cheaters.  

anal agenesis --
see imperforate anus.

anal canal --
the canal between the rectum and the anus.

anal character -- Freud: one fixed at the anal level of psychosexual development, when the libido charges the anus with energy. People stuck at this early stage are regarded as
parsimonious, obstinate, hoarding, and perfectionistic.

anal fistula -- an opening in the skin near the anus that leads into a blind pouch or may connect through a tunnel with the rectal canal.

analgesic -- a mild pain-relieving drug.

analemma -- sundial, figure-eight indicating the sun's position.

anal membrane atresia -- see imperforate anus.

analogous -- kindred, kin; parallel; corresponding; similar.

anal stage -- the second stage in Freud's model of development, during which psychic energy focuses on and is invested in and around the anus (toilet training, etc.)  (1 --3 years).

anal stenosis -- see imperforate anus.

analysands -- ones who are undergoing psychoanalysis.

analysis -- Freud: the purpose of analysis is to give the ego more control over the repressed id impulses. "Where there is id, there shall ego be." The fundamental rule of analysis is to say
whatever comes into one's mind without censoring any of it. See
free association.

analytic intelligence --
information processing skills; one of Sternberg's three broad, interacting intelligences in his Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligences.

analytic scoring -- a method of scoring  a student's constructed responses involving the application of multiple evaluative criteria, one criterion at a time. After having employed the
evaluative criteria separately, there may be an aggregation of these separate judgments into a final, overall evaluation.

anandamide -- N-arachidonoylethanolamide or AEA, an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter.

anaphase -- the stage in cell division (mitosis and meiosis) when the chromosomes move from the center of the nucleus toward the poles of the cell.

anaphora -- repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses or verses. Contrast with epiphora. Here is an example from Big Lebowski: “I don’t like you sucking
around, bothering our citizens, Lebowski. I don’t like your jerk-off name. I don’t like your jerk-off face. I don’t like your jerk-off behavior, and I don’t like you, jerk-off.” (Policeman).

anaphylaxis -- a severe allergic reaction that may cause difficulty breathing, itching, unconsciousness,and possible death.

anathema -- one that is cursed by ecclesiastical authority; one that is intensely disliked or loathed, a ban or curse solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by
excommunication; the denunciation of something that is accursed; a vigorous denunciation; curse.

anatomy -- the structure of an animal or plant, or any of its parts.

ancestry -- the inception or origin of a phenomenon, object, idea, or style; lineage.

ancienne noblesse -- old-time nobility: the French nobility before the Revolution of 1789.

ancillary -- of lower or secondary class or rank; subordinate; subsidiary; providing additional help or support; auxiliary; supplementary.

andante -- musical term; moderately slow.

andouille -- a spicy smoked sausage made with pork and garlic, used especially in Cajun cooking.

androcentrism -- the belief that men are superior to women.

androgen -- any of the hormones that develop and maintain male secondary sex characteristics.

androgenetic alopecia -- male-pattern baldness. Not the same as alopecia.

androgen insufficiency -- not enough androgen (??).

androgyny -- a type of gender identity in which the person scores high on both traditionally masculine and traditionally feminine personality characteristics.

Andromeda -- a spiral galaxy about 2.5 million light years from Earth and in the Andromeda constellation. It is also known as Messier 31, M31,
or NGC 224. It is the closest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way but not the closest galaxy.  It is in the Local Group of galaxies (which contains the
Milky Way, Andromeda, and the Triangulum Galaxy, as well as about 30 other smaller galaxies. The constellation Andromeda was one of the 48
listed by 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy. It is named for Andromeda, the daughter of Cassiopeia. There are 16 main stars in the
constellation (and 10 of them have planets): Alpha Andromedae (binary), Gamma Andromedae (binary), Beta Andromedae, Alpheratz and
Sirrah (binary), Mirach, Almach,  Adhil, δ And, ï And (stars Κ, λ, ο, and Ψ form an asterism called Frederick's Glory), μ And, υ And (binary),
ξ And (binary), ξ And (binary), 51And, 54 And, 56 And (binary), R And, Z And, HH Andromedae (ninth closest star to the earth, 10.3 light years),
and 14 And.
See lovely Andromeda galaxy and the constellation below.

androphobia, arrhenophobia --
fear of men.

androstenol -- a pheromone.

androstenone -- a pheromone.

androstenedione -- a 19-carbon steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step
in the biochemical pathway that produces the androgen testosterone and the estrogens estrone and estradiol.

Anecdotal recording -- factual narrative of an incident. (Also called anecdotal notes.)

anemia -- disorder in which the blood has either too few red blood cells or too little hemoglobin; adjective: anemic; low
hemoglobin in the blood – normal is 4.2 million/mm³ to 6.1 million/mm³.

anemone -- a flowery marine creature.

anemophobia, anemiaphobia, ancraophobia -- fear of cyclones or wind.

anencephaly -- birth defect in which either the whole brain or all but the most primitive regions of the brain are missing. Malformation of the brain due to a defect in the closure of the head
portion of the embryonic
neural tube. The area above the brain stem is severely malformed; incompatible with prolonged survival. Associated complications are diaphragmatic defects,
hypoplasia
of lungs and heart; not compatible with life. Cause unknown; multifactorial. Can be diagnosed prenatally through ultrasound, amniocentesis, measurement of alpha-fetoprotein
in the amniotic fluid. Incidence is 0.5/1000 to 10/1000; recurrent risk for siblings, 2% to 5%.

anesthetic -- a strong pain-killing drug that blocks sensation.

aneurysm -- an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel. Symptoms depend on the location of the aneurysm.

Angelman syndrome -- a chromosomal disorder (deletion of 15q11 -- q13 on the maternally inherited chromosome or paternal inheritance of both copies of chromosome 15) in which
children appear fine at birth but start having feeding problems at one or two months and notice developmental delays by 6 to 12 months. Characteristics are seizures,
speech problems,
hyperactivity, small head size with brachycephaly (short head), movement disorders, "puppet like" gait, large mouth, prominent jaw, ataxia, sudden bursts of inappropriate laughter,
generalized
depigmentation of hair, intellectual disability, paucity of speech, hyperactivity, chewing or mouthing of objects, fascination with water, hand flapping, sleep disturbances,
gorging food, and functional disorders;
new mutation, but can be autosomal dominant; see Chromosome 15 disorders.

angiotensina --
polypeptide that is a powerful vasopressor, formed in the blood by the action of renin on a plasma protein.

anger -- a relatively stable (not temporary) tendency to perceive situations as frustrating, unfair, or threatening; a stage of grieving.

angina --
a chest pain or discomfort that occurs when an area of the heart muscle doesn't get enough iron-rich blood.

anginophobia -- fear of heart attack.

angioid streaks -- streaks that radiate out from the optic nerve head under the retina. They can be red, brown, or gray. They resemble blood vessels. They represent tiny breaks in the
elastic membrane of the retina. It is associated with conditions such as
Paget's disease, sickle cell anemia, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and others.

anglophobia -- fear of England or the English.

anhedonically -- psychologically unable to experience pleasure in normally pleasurable acts.

anima -- Jung: the feminine soul. The female aspect present in the collective unconscious of men. Together, the anima and animus are a syzygy.

animagus --
in the Harry Potter series (J.K. Rowling), a witch or wizard who can morph himself or herself into a specific animal at will. It is a learned
characteristic, not hereditary. All known Animagi take the same form as their Patronus.

animal archetype -- Jung: represents humanity's relationships with the animal world.

animal tales -- also referred to as beast tales, these stories have animals as protagonists. Fables are often animal tales, but other types of folktales,
such as the "Three Little Pigs" are also animal tales.
(The Three Pigs are pictured.)

animism --
preoperational child believes that the natural world is ruled by willful intent like humans.

animistic thinking -- the belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions.

animus -- Jung: the masculine soul. The male aspect present in the collective unconscious of women. Together, the anima and animus are a syzygy.

anion --
an ion with a net negative charge, having more electrons than protons.

aniridia --
rare genetic eye condition in which the iris is missing; can be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or sporadic mutation. (See picture.)

ankyloglossia --
also called "tongue-tied";  the skin under the tongue (lingual frenulum) is shorter and wider than normal and restricts distinct sounds
to be made. In infants, this may also result in potential feeding problems.

anlagen -- the basis of a later development; foundation; primordium.

Annie Oakley -- a free ticket.

annual goals -- targets for improvement that should be reached within one year's time.

annual review -- required meeting of parents and school professionals, occurring at least once a year, to review a student's IEP and set goals for the next year.

annular -- of, relating to, or forming a ring.

annulment -- pronouncement that declares that a couple never had a valid marriage, returning both partners to single status and allowing them to marry others; can be religious or civil.

anodyne -- serving to alleviate pain; not likely to offend or arouse tensions; innocuous; calmative, sedative, opiate.

anomaly -- a deviation in physical development.

anomic aphasia -- word finding problems (also called amnesic aphasia or nominative aphasia).

anophthalmia -- congenital absence of the eyeball; cause: multifactorial.

anorak -- usually a pullover or hooded jacket long enough to cover the hips.

anorexia nervosa -- an eating disorder, occurring most often in young women, in which individuals eat very little but believe that they are overweight.

anosmic -- total or partial loss of the sense of smell.

A not B search error -- infants' tendency to search in the first hiding spot (A) while ignoring the second (B); the error made by 8- to 12-month-old babies after an object is moved from A to
B. Infants of this age search for it only in A.

anotia -- a congenital absence of the external ear, the auricle (the visible part of the ear).

anoxia -- lack of oxygen to the brain cells, which may result in permanent damage; cause perinatal.

antagonists -- working at cross-purposes (e.g., the adductor and abductor muscles of the hip oppose each others' actions.)

Antares -- a red supergiant star in the Milky Way and the sixteenth brightest star in the night sky. It is in the constellation Scorpius. It has a radius of approximately 883 times that of our sun.

antebellum -- before or existing before a war, especially the American Civil War.

antecedents -- events that come before a behavior.

antecessor (an-tih-SESS-er) -- one that goes before.

anterior -- the front part of a structure.

anterior fontanel -- the membrane-covered area on the top of the head; also called the soft spot. It generally closes by 18 months of age. (See illustration.)

anterior horn cells --
cells in the spinal column that transmit impulses from the pyramidal tract to the peripheral nervous system.

anterior/posterior positions --
front and back body orientation.

anthophobia -- fear of flowers.

anthrax -- an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. It most often involves the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, or the lungs. Symptoms are blisters or ulcers that
later forms a black scab, blisters or ulcers surrounded by swelling, fever,
malaise, headache, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, shock, nausea and vomiting, anorexia, or bloody
diarrhea
.  

anthrophilius --
feeding upon or living among flowers.

anthropophobia -- fear of people.

anthropometric -- pertains to measurement of the body or its parts.

anti-bias -- a phrase describing the development of curriculum that emphasizes an inclusive look at people and problems, extending the tenets of multicultural education and pluralism.

antibiotics -- medications that cure diseases by killing or injuring bacteria. Penicillin was the first antibiotic. Antibiotics only treat bacterial infections and are useless against viral
infections and fungal infections.

antibodies --
biochemical substances produced by the body's immune system that attack foreign cells or proteins that enter the body.

anticathexis -- Freud: a process of internal frustration that, evolved from experiences of external frustration, sets up and maintains a repression. It involves the withdrawal of libido from
whatever is being repressed. Anticathexes also oppose the impulsive
cathexes otherwise made by the id toward objects. See cathexis.

anticholingeric medications --
a group of medications that act by antagonizing the effects of the neurotransmitter acetycholine.

anticipation -- a term used in genetics to denote an expansion in triplet repeats from one generation to the next, leading to a more severe manifestation of the disease (e.g., Fragile X
syndrome).

anticipatory grief -- the grief expressed prior to the death of a loved one.

anticonvulsants -- medication prescribed to control seizures (convulsions).

antidepressants -- medications used to control major depression.

antifeminists --
the conservative branch of the men's movement, anti-feminists believe that male dominance is natural and therefore women's attempts to attain gender equality must be
resisted.

anti-gay prejudice -- also called homophobia, negative attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexuals.

antigens -- a substance that causes the formation of antibodies.

antigen-presenting cell (APC) -- a cell that can "present" antigen in a form that T cells can recognize it. The cells that can "present" antigen include B cells, and cells of the monocyte
lineage (including
macrophages).

antihistamine -- a drug that counteracts the effects of histamines, substances involved in allergic reactions.

anti-inflammatory -- designed to reduce inflammation.

anti-inflammatory drugs --
see nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

antimacassar -- covering on a chair back.

antimony -- Atomic number 51, symbol Sb; a brittle, lustrous, white metallic element occurring in nature free or combined; used chiefly in alloys and in compounds
in medicine; known to the ancients; discovery unknown.

Antinous -- in Greek mythology, the son of Eupeithes, and most well-known for his role in Homer's Odyssey. And you may well ask, why is this here in this
glossary? I don't know,
but here is a picture (played by Anthony Quinn.)

antioxidant --
chemicals that prevent the oxidation of other compounds. We should all eat antioxidant rich foods, such as apples, onions, soybeans, blueberries, cranberries, green or black
tea, red wines, dark chocolate, etc.

antipathy -- opposition in feeling; settled aversion or dislike; distaste; an object of aversion; enmity.

antipsychotic medications -- medications used to treat psychosis.

antiretroviral agents (ARVs) -- a category of medications used to treat retroviral infections (i.e., HIV/AIDS).

antisocial behavior -- a pattern of behavior that is aggressive, defiant, uncooperative, irresponsible, and/or disobedient.

antisocial personality disorder -- a condition characterized by persistent disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues
into adulthood. Deceit and manipulation are central features of this disorder. For this diagnosis to be given, the individual must be at least 18, and must have had some symptoms of

Conduct Disorder
(i.e., delinquency) before age 15. This disorder is only diagnosed when these behaviors become persistent and very disabling or distressing. Individuals with this disorder
have an increased risk of dying early by violent means (e.g., suicide, accidents, and homicide). Prolonged unemployment, interrupted education, broken marriages, irresponsible parenting,
homelessness, and frequent incarceration are common with this disorder. (
sociopathic personality; psychopathic personality).

antitheses -- the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases. Example: “The more acute the experience, the less articulate its expression.” (Harold Pinter.)

antiviral -- a group of drugs used to treat infection by a virus.

antlophobia -- fear of floods.

antonyms -- opposites; empty is an antonym of full; fast is an antonym of slow.

anuptaphobia -- fear of staying single.

anus -- the external opening of the rectum.

anxiety --
Freud: three types: reality (anxiety about the external world), normal or moral (anxiety about the superego's [originally the parents'] punishing shoulds and oughts), and neurotic
(anxiety that a repressed sexual wish might surface). Anxiety is felt only by the ego and might have hereditary components. In his later work,
Freud referred to anxiety as a danger signal.
Rogers
: what one feels in a threatening situation, which leads to psychosis. Anxiety is also an emotion that is a part of grief.

anxiety disorder -- a mental disorder characterized by attacks of panic that are not occasioned by life-threatening situations or extreme physical exertion.

anxiety disorders of childhood -- children with these disorders have difficulty dealing with anxiety-provoking situations and with separating themselves from parents or other attachment
figures (e.g., close friends, teachers, coaches). Unrealistic worries about future events, over concern about achievement, excessive need for reassurance, and somatic complaints.

anxiety-withdrawal -- involves overanxiety, social withdrawal, seclusiveness, shyness, sensitivity, and other behaviors that imply a retreat from the environment rather than a hostile
response to it.

anxiolytic -- preventing or reducing anxiety; anti-anxiety medication; tranquilizer.

anxious -- refers to a style of attachment reflecting ambivalence, or both closeness and distance at the same time.

anxious attachment -- a form of insecure attachment between a child and a caregiver associated with insufficient attachment. Anxiously attached children are overly dependent on
caregivers (e.g., clingy, fussy).

aorta -- the major artery of the body. It originates in the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. (See
illustration.)

aortic regurgitation --  
a disorder in which the aortic valve weakens or balloons, preventing the valve from closing tightly. This leads to backward
flow of blood from the aorta into the
left ventricle. Symptoms are bounding pulse, chest pain, fainting, fatigue, palpitations, shortness of breath,
weakness.

aortic valve -- one of the four valves of the heart; this valve is situated at the exit of the left ventricle of the heart where the aorta begins. The
aortic valve lets blood from the left ventricle be pumped into the aorta but prevents blood in the aorta from returning to the heart.

aortopulmonary septal defect -- a congenital anomaly in which there is abnormal communication between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.
(See illustration.)

aperitif --
alcoholic drink taken as an appetizer before a meal.

Apert syndrome (Acrocephalosyndactyly, type I) -- premature fusion of the head so head appears misshapen,
often with a high forehead, and flat
occiput (back of head); widely spaced, downwardly slanting eyes; flattened nasal
bridge and mid-facia area; severe
syndactyly (webbed hands and feet); 30% have a cleft in the soft palate, crowding
of the teeth. Caused by a gene mutation (fibroblast growth factor receptor, or FGFR2 gene on chromosome 10q26,
autosomal dominant. Associated complications are hydrocephalus, developmental delays, hearing loss,
intellectual disability, deaf blindness. Can be detected prenatally through fetoscopy. Treatment is surgical
correction of sutures that may reduce the risk of
intellectual disability. Incidence is 1/100,000 to 1/600,000;
recurrence risk to patient's children, 50%.

apex -- the highest point; vertex; the point of culmination; the usually pointed end of an object; the tip.

Apgar scale -- A screening procedure developed by Virginia Apgar for newborns given at 1 and 5 minutes after birth
to measure heart rate, respiration, color, reflex irritability, and muscle tone. Scores range from 0 (bad) to 10 (great).

aphasia -- any language impairment, receptive or expressive, that is caused by brain damage. Freud: before
psychoanalysis,
Freud began his career as a physician and studied aphasia (language disorders). Aphasia may
also be considered a
learning disability.

aphelion --
point indicated when the orbit of the earth is furthest from the sun.  

aphephobia, aphenphosmophobia --
fear of being touched.

aphesis -- omission of sound or verbiage at the beginning of a word or phrase.

aphonia -- literally means "no voice." This may occur through injury or condition that prevents the vocal cords from
coming together and vibrating. Aphonia may occur over time, and may be the result of a cold of flu. Additionally,
tumors on the vocal cords would prevent vibrations. Neurological disorders such as
Myasthenia Gravis, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
involve gradual destruction of nerve tissue, which may result in vocal cord paralysis. Further, aphonia may occur due to stress, abuse (excessive talking, yelling, smoking, drinking excessive
caffeine or alcohol, exposure to fumes/toxins.)

aphorism -- a concise statement of a principle; a terse formulation of a truth or sentiment; adage; a terse saying embodying a general truth or astute observation: "Power tends to corrupt,
and absolute power corrupts absolutely.

aphotic -- devoid of light, especially of areas where no light naturally occurs.

apical -- at the tip of a structure.

apierophobia -- fear of infinity.

apiphobia, apiophobia -- fear of bees.

aplasia -- absence of an organ or tissue.

aplastic anemia -- occurs when the bone marrow can't produce enough red blood cells, often caused by a viral infection, exposure to certain toxic chemicals, radiation, or medications, such
as antibiotics, anticonvulsants, or cancer treatments.

aplomb -- complete and confident composure or self-assurance; poise; confidence.

apnea -- episodic arrest of breathing.

apnea of prematurity -- breathing pauses due to immature central nervous system.

apneic -- pertaining to an episodic arrest of breathing.

apocope -- the omission of sound or verbiage at the end of a word or phrase.

Apocrypha -- various writings falsely attributed to Biblical characters or kept out of the New Testament because they were not accepted as resulting from revelation.

apocryphal -- of doubtful authenticity.

apomictic -- a plant that reproduces or is reproduced by apomixis.

apomixis -- reproduction involving specialized generative tissues but not dependent on fertilization.

apophenia -- the perception of or belief in connectedness among unrelated phenomena.

apoplectic -- of, relating to, or causing stroke; affected with, inclined to, or showing symptoms of a stroke; of a kind to cause or apparently cause stroke; greatly excited or angered
(apoplexy).

apoptosis -- (onomatopoeia); a genetically determined destruction of cells from within due to activation of or stimulus or removal of a suppressing agent or stimulus that is postulated to exist
to explain the orderly elimination of superfluous cells.

aposiopesis -- abrupt stop of a thought in a sentence, as if the speaker could not continue.

apostasy -- abandonment of one's religious faith, political party, one's principles, or a cause.

apostolicity -- being of or contemporary with the Apostles in character.

apostrophe -- breaking off discourse to address some absent person or thing, some abstract quality, an inanimate objects, or a nonexistent
character. Also a punctuation mark, often ridiculously misused or not used,
see picture. I can't find the other picture but get this sign seen in
front of a church: "God bless our troop's and there familys." Well??

apotheosis -- deification; quintessence; exaltation to divine rank or stature.

apparatus -- any complex instrument or mechanism for a particular purpose.

appeal to authority -- also known as argumentum ad verecundiam; argumentation fallacy that uses the authority in one area to pretend to validate claims in another area in which the
person is not an expert.

appeal to pity -- argumentation fallacy that appeals to emotion rather than arguing the merits of the case itself.

appendix -- a fingerlike pouch attached to the large intestine and located in the lower right area of the abdomen. Appendicitis is an infected appendix.

applesauce -- a relish or dessert made of apples stewed to a pulp and sweetened; bunkum, nonsense.

applied academic skill -- skill taught to students that has immediate applicability to day-to-day life. An example is making change for a dollar.

applied behavioral analysis (ABA) -- use of scientific behavioral principles to teach appropriate behaviors and reduce inappropriate behaviors.

apposite -- highly pertinent or appropriate; apt.

appraisal -- the process of judging or evaluating; to determine the quality of one's state of health.

appreciation and affection -- one of the six major qualities (commonly found in emotionally healthy families) identified by researchers working within family strengths framework.

appropriate education -- a standard required by IDEA that guarantees that students with disabilities will receive educational programs tailored to their abilities and needs.

apraxia -- the loss of the ability to perform coordinated movements or manipulate objects in the absence of a motor or sensory impairment; see developmental verbal dyspraxia.

apropos -- appropriate of, appropriate.

aptitude tests -- tests designed to measure an individual's potential for acquiring various skills.

aptitude-achievement discrepancy -- a discrepancy between different abilities and areas of achievement.

aquaphobia -- fear of water.

aquarelle -- painting done in transparent watercolors; watercolor; watercolor painting.

Aquarius -- a constellation of the zodiac, located between Capricornus and Pisces. Aquarius is
Latin for "water carrier." It was one of the 48 constellations listed by 2nd century astronomer
Ptolemy. Eleven of the stars in Aquarius have planets. See picture?-------------------------------->>

aqueous humor --
the fluid in the eyeball that fills the space between the lens and the cornea.
(See diagram.)

aquiline --
curving like an eagle's beak; of, relating to, or resembling an eagle.

arabesque -- a ballet twirl; type of artistry involving a continuous, rotating design.

arachibutyrophobia -- fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of one's mouth.

arachnoid mater (arachnoid membrane) -- the delicate membrane interposed between the dura mater and the pia mater
and, with them, constituting the meninges. (See diagram.)

arbalest --
a crossbow especially of medieval times.

arbitrary -- a decision based on individual judgment or on a whim.

arboreal -- of, relating to, or resembling a tree; inhabiting or frequenting trees.

arachnophobia -- fear of spiders.

ARC, a National Organization on Mental Retardation -- a national organization of people with intellectual disabilities and
their parents and friends, and related professionals. ARC works to enhance the quality of life for people with
intellectual
disabilities in family, school, and community settings.

archaic heritage -- Freud: phylogenetic remnants of the species' mental functioning such as inherited dispositions, ideational contents, and memory traces from former generations. Unlike
Jung,
who coined the term "collective unconscious" (now often referred to as the "objective psyche"), Freud gave these inherited remnants little more than a mention; for him, the wishes,
feelings, and aggressions derived from the present life held much more importance. However, he does discuss them as a link between group and individual psychology, a repository of the
ancestral memory of the murdered primal father, and the reason why
Oedipal and castration fears are often excessive in comparison to actual family-of-origin dynamics.

archetype -- a set of recurrent symbols stored in humanity's "collective unconscious." According to Carl Jung, a twentieth century psychoanalyst, all humans share unconscious memories of
our past as a species consisting of primordial images expressed through myth, religion, dreams, fantasies, and literature. An archetype has no form of its own, but it acts as an "organizing
principle" on the things we see and do. It works the way that instincts work in
Freud's theory. The archetype is like a black hole in space: You only know it's there by how it draws matter and
light to itself.

archipelago -- an expanse of water with many scattered islands; a group of islands; something resembling an archipelago, especially a group or scattering of similar things.

architectonic dysplasias -- developmental malformations affecting the neuronal architecture of the brain.

archival -- refers to a type of research in which existing information, such as census data, legal records, and personal letters -- is examined.

Arcturus -- the brightest star in the constellation Bootes, and the 4th brightest star in the night sky, after Sirius, Canopus, and Alpha Centauri. Arcturus is visible from both hemispheres. It is
easy to find Arcturus by following the arc of the handle of the Big Dipper. It is an orange giant star.

arcuate fasciculus -- a nerve tract that connects Wernicke's and Broca's areas of the brain. It is involved in the control of language; see picture.

arena assessment --
One form of ecological assessment used by transdisciplinary teams where one or more team members conduct the evaluation
while other team members observe.

areolar connective tissue -- the most widespread connective tissue of the body. It attaches the skin to underlying tissues. It fills the spaces between
various organs and thus holds them in place as well as cushions and protects them. It surrounds the blood vessels. The fibers are arranged in no
particular pattern but run in all directions and form a loose network. This tissue contains
collagen, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells.

argon --
Atomic number 18, symbol Ar; discovered 1894 by Sir William Ramsay; noble gas; the third most common gas in the earth's atmosphere;
mostly used as an inert shielding gas in welding and other high-temperature industrial processes.

arguments -- one or more premises, or reasons, that logically support a result or outcome called a conclusion.

aria -- air or song; a melody, solo in an opera accompanied by instrumentation.

Aries -- a constellation of the zodiac, located between Pisces and Taurus. Its name is Latin for ram. It was one of the 48 constellations described by the 2nd
century astronomer
Ptolemy. It is relatively dim, possessing only 3 bright stars: Hamal, Sheratan, and Mesartim. Six of Aries' stars have planets. See picture.

arithmophobia --
fear of numbers.

armadillo -- small omnivorous animals, mostly found in South America and central parts of the United States. There are 20 different breeds. The smallest is
the pink fairy armadillo which is only 6 inches tall and the largest is the giant armadillo which can be 5 feet tall. Average life span is 12 -- 15 years. They are
covered in a hard shell comprising many small bones, have short legs, have poor vision but a strong sense of smell. Only the three-banded armadillo can roll
itself into a ball when it senses danger; the others cannot.

armistice -- temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement between the opponents: truce.

aromatase -- an enzyme that is responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogen.

arranged marriage -- a marriage in which the partners are determined by their families; the partners do not choose one another.

array of services -- constellation of special education services, personnel, and educational placements.

arsenic -- atomic number 33, symbol As; a grayish white element with a metallic luster, vaporizes when heating, forming poisonous compounds; arsenic was known to the ancients; discovery
unknown.

arsonophobia -- fear of fire.

art -- activities designed to promote creativity, using a variety of tools and other materials to do so. Art can also be used to enhance cognition, speech and language, motor, self-help, and
social-emotional development.

art area -- an activity center for paining, collage making, cutting, pasting, etc. It needs to be located near water and light.

artemesia -- type of plant, genus or aromatic shrubs or herbs.

arterial blood gas -- a laboratory profile test of sampled arterial blood, including pH, PaO2, and PaCO2.

arterial-venous malformation (AVM) -- birth defect of blood vessels, often associated with a disastrous post-thrombotic hemorrhage.

arterioles -- small blood vessels that branch from the arteries and carry arterial (oxygenated) blood from the heart to the body tissues.

arteriogram -- a procedure in which a dye is injected into the bloodstream and is detected by X ray to produce an image of blood flow. (See illustration.)

artery --
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

artherosclerosis -- hardening of the arteries.

arthritis -- an inflammatory disease of joints, with swelling, warmth, pain, and trouble moving. Kinds: juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, septic arthritis
(bacterial infection of a joint).

Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita -- multiple joint contractures beginning prenatally; caused most frequently by an underlying neurological abnormality, but can also be caused by
abnormalities of muscle or connective tissue, or in utero crowding due to the lack of amniotic fluid or twinning (usually sporadic, could be
teratogenic, autosomal dominant, or autosomal
recessive
). The limitation in fetal joint mobility results in contractures. Associated conditions are cleft palate, ptosis, decreased range of ocular motion, small chin, hernias,
scoliosis
, defects of abdominal wall, occasional developmental delay. Prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Treatment includes casting of affected joints. Incidence unknown.

arthropathy -- any disease or abnormal condition affecting a joint.

arthropod -- any of numerous invertebrate animals of the phylum Arthropoda, including insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods, that are characterized by a chitinous exoskeleton
and a segmented body to which jointed appendages are articulated in pairs.

article -- a, an, the.

articular -- referring to the surface of a bone at a joint space.

articulation -- movement of the tongue, teeth, lips, and palate to produce the sounds of language.

articulation disorders -- abnormal production of speech sounds (phonemes).

articulation errors -- speech sounds that are inconsistent with the native language (usually a temporary developmental irregularity).

articulation problems -- speech problems such as omissions, substitutions, additions, or distortions of words.

artifice -- skill or ingenuity; a clever expedient; trickery or craft; sly or artful trick.

artificial insemination -- the mechanical introduction of semen into the uterus in an attempt to cause pregnancy.

artificialism --
preoperational child believes that humans create and influence nature.

art portfolios -- a method of retaining art work that can be used for formal or informal assessment.

artropathy -- any disease or abnormal condition affecting a joint.

art therapist -- professional trained in therapeutic uses of pictures or other creative modes to allow children to express thoughts and experiences.

art therapy -- therapy that uses art to help build children's development, creativity, and expression.

ascertain -- to understand specific facts; to ferret out information.

ascetic -- practicing strict self-denial; austere in appearance, manner, or attitude; severe.

ASD -- see Autism Spectrum Disorder.

aseptic necrosis (osteonecrosis) --
bone death caused by poor blood supply to the area. It is most common in the hip and shoulder. It can be caused by disease, trauma, alcohol use,
sickle cell anemia
, radiation therapy, long-term steroid use, Gaucher disease, fractures, gout, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc.

aseptic procedure -- treatment to produce a product that is free of disease-producing bacteria.

asexual reproduction -- self-replication, so the offspring carry the sole parent's genes. This may be a bacteria dividing into two, or a female plant or animal producing an identical female
offspring. Most species of animals which exhibit asexual reproduction can also reproduce sexually.

ashlar -- a squared block of building stone and dressed for outward placement.

ASL -- see American Sign Language.

Asperger Syndrome --
one of the Autism Spectrum Disorders, characterized by a lack of social skills; poor coordination, restricted range of interests; but usually normal intelligence and
adequate language skills. Cause is unknown.

asperity -- roughness or harshness, as of surface, sound, or climate; severity; rigor; a slight projection from a surface; a point or bump; harshness of manner; ill temper or irritability.

aspersion -- a sprinkling with water especially in religious ceremonies; a false or misleading charge meant to harm someone's reputation; the act of making such a charge; defamation.

asphodel -- a type of flower, often associated with the Underworld.

asphyxia -- Interference with oxygenation of the blood that leads to loss of consciousness and possible brain damage, including deaf-blindness.

aspirated --
inhaled  aspiration pneumonia -- inflammation of the lungs caused by inhaling a foreign body, such as food, into the lungs.  

assay --
try, attempt; to analyze (as an ore) for more specific components; to prove to be of a particular nature by means of analysis; to judge the worth of; estimate.  

assent -- agreement to research or treatment, given by a child or minor who is too young to give legally valid informed consent.  

assertive communication -- a style of interpersonal communication that involves expressing one's self-interests and wishes without degrading or putting down the other person.  

assertiveness --
a person's ability to express her or his feelings and desires.  

assessment --
process of determining students' current functioning levels; all forms of measurement and appraisal, including tests, observations, interviews, and reports from knowledgeable
sources, recorded and integrated in an organized manner and used in planning. Steps of assessment process are
screening, eligibility, and program planning.

assessment instruments; assessment tools --
checklists, inventories, structured observation guides, rating scales, and other systematic means of collecting and recording information
about young children.

assessment of emotional intelligence -- systematic observation of the components of emotional intelligence based on a concept developed by Daniel Goleman. Some of the
components are self-awareness, management of emotions, empathy, and conflict resolution.

assessment of multiple intelligences -- systematic observation of multiple intelligences based on a theory by Howard Gardner.

assessment procedures -- methods and techniques used in the assessment process, such as observation, interviews, work sampling, collection and analysis of children's work products,
and tests of various kinds.
 

assiduous --
hard-working; industrious; operose; laborious (work); careful; diligent; attentive; punctilious (care, attention); unfailing; unflagging; unrelenting; unremit.ting; constant.

assimilation -- According to Piaget's theorizing, the cognitive process by which a person attempts to balance new information with already existing data.

assistance animals -- the most recognizable assistance animals are dogs. Dogs have a natural social nature, and are wonderful pets, companions, and protectors. They are useful in law
enforcement, search and rescue, and farming. As assistance animals, they provide help for people who are
visually or hearing impaired, an alert system for impending seizures, aid to
people with
physical disabilities, and comfort for people with emotional disorders, or who are sick, or elderly. Other assistance animals include monkeys, pigs, birds, and horses.

assisted discovery -- compared to a classroom built on Piaget's tenets, a classroom built on Vygotsky's tenets would emphasize THIS, in which teachers are on hand to guide children's
learning through explanations, demonstrations, and verbal prompts within each child's zone of proximal development. Assisted discovery is helped along by peer collaboration, in which
children with varying abilities work together in groups, teaching and helping one another.

assisted reproductive technology (ART) -- the collective name for all treatments and procedures by which human eggs and sperm may be manipulated to produce a pregnancy.

assisted ventilation -- method of aiding respiration.

assistive devices -- see assistive technology.

assistive learning devices --
hard-wired or wireless transmitting and receiving instruments that send sound from a microphone directly to the listener, minimizing the effect of distance,
noise, and reverberation on clarity.

assistive technology (adaptive devices) -- devices and/or services that improve the functional capabilities of a child with disabilities; any item, piece of equipment, or product system,
whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with disabilities; including hearing aids,
FM auditory trainers, canes, wheelchairs, augmentative communication devices, and computerized
Braille system or voice synthesizer.

assistive technology device -- PL 108-446 -- any item, equipment, or product used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities. The term does not include surgically implanted
medical devices or replacement of such devices.

association -- Freud: the link between one mental content and another. To Freudian thought itself, for example, some people associate trains going into tunnels.

associational fluency -- the ability to produce synonyms for a given word.

associative play -- a form of social play in which children sometimes share toys, but each child plays independently without mutually accepted goals or rules.

assonance -- similar to alliteration, except the repeated sounds are within the string of words. (On a proud round cloud in white high night.)

assuage -- to lessen the intensity of something that pains or distresses; pacify, quiet, ease, appease, quench, relieve.

astatine -- atomic number 85, symbol At; a highly unstable radioactive element, the heaviest of the halogen series that resembles iodine in solution; a decay product of uranium and thorium
that occurs naturally in minute amounts and is artificially produced by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles; discovered in 1940 by
D.R. Corson.

asterism --
a cluster of stars smaller than a constellation, easily recognizable from earth, that may be a part of a larger constellation, such as the seven stars that make up the Big Dipper, as
part of Ursa Major.

asthenophobia -- fear of weakness.

asthma -- an illness which, in response to a variety of stimuli, highly sensitive bronchial tubes fill with mucus and contract, leading to
episodes of coughing, wheezing, and serious breathing difficulties.

astigmatism -- a refractive eye problem that occurs when the surface of the cornea is uneven or structurally defective, preventing light rays
from converging at one point.
(See illustration.)

astral --
of or pertaining to the aster; stellar; star-shaped; pertaining to the stars.

astraphobia, astrapophobia -- fear of lightning.

astrocytes -- support cells in the central nervous system that help form the white matter.

astrophobia -- fear of stars.

asylum -- refuge; a place to restore sanity or facilitate recovery.

asymmetric -- having no balance or symmetry; see picture.

asymmetrically permeable boundaries --
a term meaning that the influences between pairs of work-family roles run in one direction; some work-family roles affect others but not vice versa.

asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) -- a primitive reflex in which the limbs are extended on the side of the body toward which the head is turned
but flexed on the opposite side; also called "
fencer's response," see illustration---->.

asymptomatic --
living without symptoms, as in the case of children who are more  than 15 months old and test positive for the HIV antibodies but do
not show the clinical symptoms of AIDS.

asynchrony -- uneven development; no synchronous.

atavism -- recurrence in an organism of a trait or character typical of an ancestral form and usually due to genetic recombination.

ataxia -- the condition of having an unbalanced gait caused by loss of cerebellar control.

ataxia telangiectasia -- a multisystem degenerative disease slowly progressive ataxia, telangiectasias (dilation of the capillaries, especially in the sclera, or whites of the eyes, and behind
the earlobe), immune defects, elevated alpha-fetoprotein in blood
, dystonia or choreoathetosis, dysarthric speech (imperfect articulation due to decreased muscle control), increased
sensitivity to radiation, increased risk of malignancy (often
lymphoma), eye movement abnormalities, finger contractures, increased risk of sinus and pulmonary infections, congenital
deafness, familial manic-depressive illness; intelligence is typically unaffected, but may decline as disease progresses. This disorder is more common among Amish and Mennonite
populations. Caused by a mutation in the ATM gene on chromosome 11q22.3,
autosomal recessive.

ataxic; ataxic gait --
having an unbalanced gait caused by loss of cerebellar control.

ataxic cerebral palsy -- a form of cerebral palsy that includes lack of coordination because of a poor sense of balance and body position. About 5% to 10% of people with cerebral palsy
have this form. They may walk with an unsteady gait with feet far apart, and they may have difficulty with motions that require precise coordination, such as writing.

ataxic dysarthria -- involves difficulty in coordinating the rate, range, and force of speech movements. The person may overshoot or undershoot the appropriate positions of the articulators
(lips, tongue, jaw) in speech; see
dysarthria.

ataxiophobia, ataxophobia --
fear of disorder.

atavism (atavistic) -- a recurrence in an organism of a form and usually due to genetic recombination; recurrence of a reversion to a past cycle, outlook, manner, or approach; throwback.

atelier -- an artist's studio; a place designated to perform or create art.

atelierista -- a person trained in the arts who acts as a resource and teaches techniques and skills to children in the schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy.

atelophobia -- fear of imperfection.

atephobia -- fear of ruin.

atermoiements (ah-terr-mwah-ma) -- hesitations leading to procrastination, in an annoying way.

athanasy -- quality of being deathless; immortality.

athenaeum -- institution for the promotion of literacy or scientific learning; phrontistery.

atheroma -- a fatty deposit in the inner lining of an artery, resulting from atherosclerosis. Also called atherosclerotic plaque, arterial plaque, or plaque.

atherosclerosis -- a condition in which fatty material collects along the walls of arteries. It hardens, forming calcium deposits, and may eventually block the arteries.

athetoid cerebral palsy -- type of cerebral palsy in which individuals cannot control their muscles and so they may have sudden and unexpected twisting motions or other movements.
About 10% to 20% of people with cerebral palsy have this form, which affects the entire body. Muscle tone is varied, and associated with uncontrolled movements. Children often have trouble
learning to control their bodies enough to sit and walk. Because muscles of the face and tongue can be affected, there also can be difficulties with sucking, swallowing, and speech.

athetosis -- constant random, writhing involuntary movement of the limbs.

athletic coach parenting style -- parenting style in which parents set out rules for the house, helped by input from the family, teach the children the rules, and apply appropriate penalties
for infractions.

Atlanto-axial instability -- a problem sometimes seen in children with Down syndrome in which they exhibit increased mobility of the first two neck bones due to laxity of the ligaments that
hold these bones together.

Atman -- in Hinduism the concept of the individual's soul. This is in contrast to Brahman, the universal soul of which everyone is a part.

AT number -- refers to Aarne-Thompson Tale Types.

atom --
a basic unit of matter that consists of a dense, central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The nucleus contains a mix of
positively charged
protons and electrically neutral neutrons (except for hydrogen-1, with no neutrons). The electrons of the atom are bound to the nucleus by
electromagnetic force. A group of atoms can remain bound to each other, forming a
molecule. An atom containing an equal number of protons and electrons is
electrically neutral; otherwise it has a positive or negative charge and is an
ion. An atom is classified according to the number of neutrons and protons in its
nucleus: the number of protons determines the atomic number and the number of neutrons determines the
isotope of the element. In Greek, "atom" means
"uncuttable".
(See illustration.)

atomic number --
the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom, which determines which element the atom is.

atonic -- absence of normal muscle tone.

atonic seizures -- A seizure characterized by lack of muscle tone. The eyelids droop, the head may nod, and the person may drop things and often falls to the ground. These are sometimes
called "drop attacks," "drop seizures," or "akinetic seizures." The person usually remains conscious.

atopic dermatitis -- eczema.

atresia -- congenital absence of a body part or failure of closure of a body orifice.

atresia choanae -- see choanal atresia.

atria -- upper two chambers of the heart. (See illustration--------------------------------------------->.)

atrial septic defect --
congenital anomaly characterized by an abnormal opening between the atria. These defects increase the flow of oxygenated
blood to the right side of the heart, which is usually well tolerated, since blood is delivered under much lower pressure than with
ventricular septal
defect. The defect can lead to atrial arrhythmias, bacterial endocarditis, and congestive heart failure.

at risk --
describes a child with indications (biological or environmental) that serious problems may more easily develop; describing a child with exposure to certain adverse conditions and
circumstances known to have a high probability of resulting in learning and developmental difficulties.

at risk infant or toddler -- (IDEA 2004) an individual under 3 years of age who would be at risk of experiencing a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services were not
provided to that individual.

atrophy -- a wasting away; a condition in which muscles that are not used shrink in size; a condition in which the brain stops growing and shrinks, with the resulting space in the skull filling
with fluid-filled cysts.

atropinization -- treatment for cataracts that involves washing the eye with atropine, permanently dilating the pupil.

attachment -- positive and trusting bonds between individuals, typically infant and parent or major caregiver; the emotional bond that infants show to a person (usually the mother) with whom
they have had a stable, trusting relationship.

attachment, post divorce -- continuing to have thoughts about and longings for one's former spouse.

attachment process -- building positive and trusting bonds between individuals, usually infants and their parents.

attachment theory -- a theory of the origin of love; it suggests primary motivation in life "is to be connected with other people -- because it is the only security we ever have."

attenuate -- reduced especially in thickness, density, or force; tapering gradually to a long slender point.

attention -- the ability to focus on specific stimuli.

attention deficit -- inability to focus; medical diagnosis, may or not be accompanied by hyperactivity.

attention deficit disorder (ADD) -- a condition characterized by hyperactivity, inability to control one's own behavior, and constant movement. In 1997, ADD and ADHD were allowed to be
considered disabilities, according to
IDEA, under the umbrella of Other Health Impairments.

attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) --
a developmental disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention to a degree that leads to an impairment in
functioning; a psychiatric disorder with symptoms occurring before age 7 that includes a pervasive and significant pattern of
inattention, impulsivity, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity.; A
diagnostic category of the
American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV. In 1997, ADD and ADHD were allowed to be considered disabilities, according to IDEA, under the umbrella of Other
Health Impairments; cause is unknown.

attention disorders -- children may have difficulty concentrating and remaining "on task." They rarely finish what is started, frequently jump from one activity to another, and are easily
distracted by competing stimuli.

attention span -- focus perceptual processes on a specific aspect of the environment.

attentive listening -- a style of listening focused on fully understanding the speaker's point of view; characterized by encouragement rather than trying to direct or control the speaker.

attenuate -- to make slender or thin; to dilute or rarify; to lessen in severity, value, amount, intensity; weaken; to reduce the strength of; to reduce the virulence of.

attitude of science -- the use of parsimony and empirical research to determine what is true.

attributable risk -- the rate of the condition that can be attributed to exposure of a teratogenic agent.

attribution -- an inference or judgment about the cause of a particular event or behavior, concerned with making sense of the world.

attribution conflict -- a relationship-ending strategy involving an intense argument between partners that becomes the alleged reason for the breakup.

atychiphobia -- fear of failure.

atypical absence seizure -- absence seizures with less abrupt onset or cessation, more pronounced changes in tone, longer duration, onset before 5 years, association with generalized
seizure
types and intellectual disability. Many people who have atypical absence seizures have Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

atypical development --
Any aspect of a child's physical or psychological makeup that is different from what is generally accepted as typical to early childhood.

Au -- atomic number 79, symbol for gold.

aubade -- poem or song about or evocative of dawn or morning, the opposite of nocturne.

auburn -- moderate reddish-brown.

audiogram -- a chart that plots level of hearing ability measured in terms of loudness, decibels (dB), and pitch in Hertz (Hz).

audiological evaluation -- the method of determining the degree of hearing loss.

audiologist --
a professional who specializes in evaluating hearing ability and treating impaired hearing.

audiology --
the science of hearing.

audiometer -- an electric device used to detect a person's response to sound stimuli.  

audiometric zero -- the smallest sound a person with normal hearing can perceive; also called the zero
hearing-threshold level (HTL).

audiometry -- the testing of hearing  

audio recorders -- devices that make a taped reproduction of sound.  

audition --
the act or sense of hearing.  

auditory --
what is experienced through hearing.  

auditory association --
the ability to associate verbally presented ideas or information.  

auditory blending -- the act of blending the parts of a word into an integrated whole when speaking.  

auditory brain stem response (ABR) -- a test to evaluate the processing of sound by the brain stem; also
called
brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). It is primarily used to test hearing in infants.

auditory canal (external acoustic meatus) -- amplifies and transports sound waves from the external to the
middle ear.
(See illustration.)

auditory cortex --
the part of the brain that responds to complex musical tones. (See illustration.)

auditory discrimination --
ability to differentiate between various sounds, such as different words, syllables,
or environmental noises.

auditory hallucinations -- hearing voices that aren't there.

auditory memory -- the ability to recall verbally presented material.

auditory nerve -- either of the eighth pair of cranial nerves connecting the inner ear with the brain, which transmit hearing
and balance impulses.
(See illustration.)

auditory perceptual disorder --
also called auditory perceptual problem, central auditory dysfunction, or central
auditory processing disorder (CAPD). Difficulty in listening to or comprehending auditory information, especially under less
optimal listening conditions (e.g., background noise). Simply, a condition wherein a person does not process speech/ language
correctly.

auditory sensory problems -- sensory problems associated with autism: difficulty processing auditory information,
distinguishing background noise from foreground, distortions in speech sounds, time lag in processing.

auditory training -- a training method that focuses on enhancing the use of residual hearing abilities.

auger -- any of various hand tools, typically having a threaded shank and cross handle, used for boring holes in wood or ice; a machine having a rotating helical shaft for boring into the
earth.

augmented reality -- an artistic method of creating art in real time over reality such as a painting, etc. See Nathan Shafer.

augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) --
adapted high- or light-technological aids that provide students with alternatives to speech to convey their messages.

augmentative communication system -- adapted high- or light-technological aids that provide students with alternatives to speech to convey their message.

August 15, 1969 -- performers at Woodstock: Swami Satchidananda, Richie Havens (The Minstrel from Gault, From the Prison, Get Together, I'm a Stranger Here, High Flying Bird, I
Can't Make it Anymore, With a Little Help From My Friends, Handsome Johnny, Strawberry Fields Forever > Hey Jude, Freedom),
Country Joe McDonald (Janis, Rockin' All Around the
World, Flyin' High All Over the World, Seen a Rocket, Fish Cheer/I-Feel-Like-I'm-Fixing-To-Die-Rag),
John B. Sebastian (How Have You Been, Rainbows All Over Your Blues, I Had a Dream,
Darlin' Be Home Soon, Younger Generation),
Sweetwater (Motherless Child, Look Out, For Pete's Sake, Day Song, What's Wrong, My Crystal Spider, Two Worlds, Band Introduction, Why
Oh Why),
Incredible String Band (Invocation, The Letter, This Moment, When You Find Out Who You Are),  Bert Sommer (Jennifer, The Road to Travel, I Wondered Where You Be, She's
Gone, Things Are Going My Way, And When It's Over, Jeanette, America, A Note That Read, Smile),
Tim Hardin (Hang On to a Dream, Susan, If I Were a Carpenter, Reason to Believe, You
Upset the Grace of Living When You Lie, Speak Like a Child, Snow White Lady, Blues on My Ceiling, Simple Song of Freedom, Misty Roses),
Ravi Shankar (Raga Puriya-Dhanashri/Gat in
Sawarital, Tabla Solo In Jhaptal, Raga Manj Kmahaj, Iap Jor, Dhun In Kaharwa Tal),
Melanie (Close to It All, Momma Momma, Beautiful People, Animal Crackers, Mr. Tambourine Man,
Tuning My Guitar, Birthday of the Sun),
Arlo Guthrie (Coming Into Los Angeles, Wheel of Fortune, Walking Down the Line, Arlo Speech: Exodus, Oh Mary Don't You Weep, Every Hand in
the Land, Amazing Grace),
Joan Baez (Oh Happy Day, The Last Thing on My Mind, I Shall Be Released, Joe Hill, Sweet Sir Galahad, Hickory Wind, Drug Store Truck Driving Man, I Live One
Day at a Time, Sweet Sunny South, Warm and Tender Love, Swing Low Sweet Chariot, We Shall Overcome).

August 16, 1969 -- performers at Woodstock: Quill (Driftin', They Live the Life, BBY, Waitin' For You, Jam), Keef Hartley Band (Spanish Fly, Believe in You, Rock Me Baby, Medley:
Leavin' Trunk, Halfbreed, Just to Cry, Sinnin' For You),
Santana (Waiting, Evil Ways, You Just Don't Care, Savior, Jingo, Persuasion, Soul Sacrifice, Fried Neckbones), Canned Heat (I'm Her
Man, Going Up to the Country, A Change is Gonna Come, Leaving This Town, The Bear Talks, Let's Work Together, Too Many Drivers at the Wheel, I Know My Baby, Woodstock Boogie, On
the Road Again),
Grateful Dead (St. Stephen, Mama Tried, Dark Star, High Time, Turn on Your Lovelight), Mountain (Blood of the Sun, Stormy Monday, Long Red, Who Am I But You and
the Sun, Beside the Sea, For Yasgur's Farm, You and Me, Theme From an Imaginary Western, Waiting to Take You Away, Dreams of Milk and Honey, Blind Man, Blue Suede Shoes,
Southbound Train),
Creedence Clearwater Revival (Born on the Bayou, Green River, Ninety-Nine and A Half, Commotion, Bootleg, Bad Moon Rising, Proud Mary, I Put a Spell On You,
Night Time is the Right Time, Keep On Choogin', Suzy Q),
Sly and the Family Stone (M'Lady, Sing a Simple Song, You Can Make It If You Try, Everyday People, Dance to the Music, Music
Lover, I Want to Take You Higher, Love City, Stand!),
Janis Joplin (Raise Your Hand, As Good As You've Been To This World, To Love Somebody, Summertime, Try, Kosmic Blues, Can't
Turn You Loose, Work Me Lord, Piece of My Heart, Ball and Chain),
The Who (Heaven and Hell, I Can't Explain, It's A Boy, 1921, Amazing Journey, Sparks, Eyesight tot he Blind, Christmas,
Acid Queen, Pinball Wizard, Do You Think It's Alright?, Fiddle About, There's a Doctor I've Found, Go to the Mirror Boy, Smash the Mirror, I'm Free, Tommy's Holiday Camp, We're Not Gonna
Take It, See Me Feel Me, Summertime Blues, Shakin' All Over, My Generation, Naked Eye).    

August 17, 1969 -- performers at Woodstock: Jefferson Airplane (The Other Side of this Life, Plastic Fantastic Lover, Volunteers, Won't You Try/ Saturday Afternoon, Eskimo Blue Day,
Uncle Sam's Blues, Somebody to Love, White Rabbit, 3/5 of a Mile in 10 Seconds),
Joe Cocker (Delta Lady, Some Things Goin' On, Let's Go Get Stones, I Shall Be Released, With a Little
Help From My Friends),
Country Joe and the Fish (Barry's Caviar Dream, Not So Sweet Martha Lorraine, Rock and Soul Music, Thing Called Love, Love Machine, Fish Cheer/I-Feel-Like-
I'm-Fixing-To-Die-Rag),
Ten Years After (Good Morning Little Schoolgirl, I Can't Keep From Crying Sometimes, I May Be Wrong But I Won't Be Wrong Always, Hear Me Calling, I'm Going
Home),
The Band (Chest Fever, Baby Don't Do It, Tears of Rage, We Can Talk, Long Black Veil, Don't You Tell Henry, Ain't No More Cane, Wheels on Fire, Loving You Is Sweeter Than
Ever, The Weight)

August 18, 1969 (just after midnight) -- performers at Woodstock: Blood Sweat and Tears (More and More, I Love You Baby More Than You Ever Know, Spinning Wheel, I Stand
Accused, Something Coming On, God Bless the Child),
Johnny Winter (Mama Talk To Your Daughter, To Tell the Truth, Johnny B Goode, Six Feet in the Ground, Leland Mississippi
Blues/Rock Me Baby, Mean Mistreater, I Can't Stand It and Tobacco Road [with
Edgar Winter], Mean Town Blues), Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young (Suite: Judy Blue Eyes, Blackbird,
Helplessly Hoping, Guinnevere, Marrakesh Express, 4 + 20, Mr. Soul, Wonderin', You Don't Have to Cry, Pre-road Downs, Long Time Gone, Bluebird, Sea of Madness, Wooden Ships, Find
the Cost of Freedom, 49 bye-byes),
Paul Butterfield Blues Band (Everything's Gonna Be Alright, Driftin', Born Under a Bad Sign, All My Love Comin' Through to You, Love March), Sha-Na-
Na
(Na Na Theme, Jakety Jak, Teen Angel, Jailhouse Rock, Wipe Out, Who Wrote the Book of Love, Duke of Earl, At the Hop), Jimi Hendrix (Message to Love, Hear My Train A Comin',
Spanish Castle Magic, Red House, Master Mind, Here Comes Your Lover Man, Foxy Lady, Beginning, Izabella, Gypsy Woman, Fire, Voodoo Child/Stepping Stone, Star Spangled Banner,
Purple Haze, Woodstock Improvisation/Villanova Junction, Hey Joe).

aulophobia, autophobia -- fear of flutes.

aura -- visual changes or alterations of sensations that represent a simple partial seizure and often precede a complex partial or generalized seizure.

aureate (OR-ee-ut) -- of a golden color or brilliance; marked by grandiloquent and rhetorical style.

auricle -- external part of the ear that carries sound waves to the auditory canal; also called the pinna. (Can be seen in red ear illustration, above.)

aurophobia --
fear of gold.

aurora -- an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands, curtains, or streamers of light, usually green, red, or yellow,  caused by charged solar particles following the earth's magnetic
lines of force. A display of aurora in the north is called Aurora Borealis. In the south it is called Aurora Australis.

auroraphobia -- fear of Northern Lights (Aurora Borealis).

austerity -- the quality of being austere; having a stern look or manner or showing strict self-discipline; overly plain, grave, or sober.

autarchy -- absolute sovereignty.

authentic assessment -- Ongoing assessment process that occurs within the student's natural environment and includes observation of a student's performance as well as the necessary
supports for the student. Authentic assessment also includes work samples that the student has produced.

authentic, direct, or performance assessment -- type of assessment that uses tasks as close as possible to real-life practical and intellectual challenges. Performance assessment refers
to the type of pupil response. If motor coordination is to be measured, the child performs an appropriate action. If writing is of concern, the child writes. Authentic assessment refers to the
situation or context in which the task is performed. In authentic assessment, the child completes the desired behavior in a context as close to real life as possible.

authoritarian parenting -- a style of parenting in which parents try to shape, control, and judge the behaviors and attitudes of their children according to rigid standards of conduct; Diana
Baumrind.

authoritative parenting --
a style of parenting in which parents encourage verbal give and take and share with their children the reasons behind discipline and household rules; Diana
Baumrind.

autism --
a pervasive developmental disorder. This diagnosis refers to individuals who display social interaction and communication impairments, as well as repetitive, stereotypic, and
restricted interests and activities prior to 36 months of age; often accompanied by moderate or severe intellectual disability.
Autism was added as a disability category of IDEA in 1990, as
part of
PL 101-476. The definition of autism in IDEA: a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before
age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements,
resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.

Autism Spectrum Disorders -- five pervasive developmental disorders characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and restricted, repetitive,
and stereotyped patterns of behavior. The five disorders are
Asperger Syndrome; Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS); Childhood
Disintegrative Disorder; Rett Syndrome
; and Autistic Disorder.

Autistic Disorder --
moderate to severe range of communication, socialization, and behavioral problems; commonly includes intellectual disabilities. Sometimes it is called early infantile
autism or childhood autism; considered the most severe of the
autism spectrum disorders.

autistic savant --
a rare condition in which an individual with autism displays a brilliant talent or intelligence in a particular area, such as feats of memory, mathematics, or music.

autoantibodies -- antibodies that mistakenly target and damage specific tissues or organs of the body. This often results in a chronic autoimmune disorder.  

autoantonym -- a word that has two meanings that are the opposite of each other. For example, "cleave" means both to split asunder and to join together; "dust" to remove dust, and to
sprinkle with dust; "left" remaining and gone away; "presently" now, later; "rock" a sure foundation or anything immovable or a swaying or tilting movement.

autobiography -- the story of a life: the writer will somehow attempt to capture all the essential elements of her life. It is expected to deal with facts and emotions: growth, career, family life,
education, relationships, sexuality, travels, inner struggles. A memoir is a story
from a life. It makes no pretense of replicating a whole life. A memoir narrows the lens, focusing on a time that
was unusually vivid.

autobiographical memory -- representations of special, one-time events that are long-lasting because they are imbued with personal meaning.

autocracy -- a form of government in which one person possesses unlimited power. An autocrat is a person ruling with unlimited authority. Synonymous with despot, tyrant, dictator.

auto education -- In Montessori terms, the self-learning that occurs as a result of a child independently interacting with a carefully planned environment.

autoeroticism -- Freud: Havelock Ellis's term for the baby's habit of pleasing itself sensually with its own body. In normal development, it gives way to an eroticism directed at love partners.

autoimmune -- reaction in which one's immune system attacks other parts of the body.

autoimmune disorder -- a disease or disorder in which the immune system mistakenly attacks the body, targeting the tissue, cells, and organs. The immune system normally works to
defend the body and eliminate infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and other invading microbes. Some autoimmune disorders are
type 1 diabetes mellitus, Crohn's disease,
ulcerative colitis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, psoriasis, HIV, and AIDS.

autoimmune hemolytic anemia -- a type of anemia in which the immune system mistakes red blood cells as foreign invaders and begins destroying them.

automatic (protective) movement reactions -- motor responses that become evident in the first year of life, permitting normal motor development progression. Examples include neck
righting and propping responses.

automatic reflexes -- motor responses that become evident in the first year of life, permitting normal motor development progression. Examples include neck righting and propping
responses.

automatisms -- automatic fine motor movements (e.g., unbuttoning one's clothing) that are part of a seizure.

automysophobia -- fear of being dirty.

autonomic nervous system -- the part of the nervous system that regulates certain autonomic functions of the body -- for example -- heart rate, sweating, and bowel movement.

autonomic power pattern -- a power pattern in a marriage in which both partners have about equal authority but in different areas of life; both make decisions in their particular domains
independent of the other.

autonomic seizures -- seizures with autonomic symptoms or signs, such as abdominal discomfort or nausea, which may rise into the throat, stomach pain, gas in the intestines, belching,
flatulence, vomiting, pallor, flushing, sweating, hair standing on end, dilation of the pupils, changes in heart rate or respiration, urination, or occasional sexual arousal.

autonomous binuclear family -- divorced spouses maintain a friendly relationship, but a low level of interaction.

autonomous morality stage -- Piagetian stage of moral development in which one believes that rules can be changed by the will of those involved.

autonomy -- the ability to govern oneself and make independent decisions. Maslow: part of being self-actualizing is the enjoyment of autonomy.

autonomy vs. shame and doubt -- in Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved positively if parents provide young children  with suitable guidance and
reasonable choices. The second stage, ages 1 -- 3.

autophobia -- fear of solitude.

autosomal dominant gene -- deviations or disorders that pass through generations and are carried on one of the non-sex chromosomes (or autosome).

autosomal dominant genetic inheritance -- a genetic inheritance of a trait that has to be carried by only one parent. If the child inherits the trait from that one parent, the child will be
affected with the disability. Statistically, it is passed to 50% of their children.

autosomal dominant (trait) -- a genetic trait carried on the autosomes. The disorder appears when one of a pair of chromosomes contains the abnormal gene. Statistically, it is passed on
from the affected parent to half of the children.

autosomal recessive gene -- a gene carried by healthy parents on any one chromosome except the sex chromosome that, if inherited from both parents, results in a child with a medical
condition not present in the parents.

autosomal recessive genetic inheritance -- a genetic inheritance of a trait which one or both asymptomatic parents carry the gene. The child must inherit two abnormal genes (one from
each parent) in order to be affected. If the child inherits one, s/he will be asymptomatic also (a carrier). Statistically the chance is 25% of being a carrier (with only one carrier parent).

autosomal recessive (trait) -- a genetic trait carried on the autosomes. Both asymptomatic parents must carry the trait to produce an affected child. The child has two abnormal genes. The
risk of recurrence in subsequent children is 25%.

autosomes -- the first 22 pairs of chromosomes, which account for most of the body cells.

autumnal -- pertaining to, like, relating, or evocative of autumn.

auxiliary -- offering or providing help; functioning in a subsidiary capacity; constituting reserve: supplementary.

avada kedavra -- an unforgiveable curse (Harry Potter series, J.K. Rowling), Avada Kedavra causes instant death. Avada Kedavra stems from archaic Sanskrit words meaning, "From life,
nothing." It has the opposite root meaning of the phrase "Abra Cadabra," which means, "From nothing, life."

avarice -- extreme greed for wealth or material gain.

avatar -- an incarnation or manifestation of a Hindu god as a human hero. Two of the gods in Vishnu's human avatars were said to be kinds, Krishna and Rama.

avenue -- wide street or thoroughfare; roadway lined with trees.

aversive -- pertaining to a stimulus, often unpleasant that decreases the likelihood a particular response will subsequently occur.

Avesta -- the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the Avestan language.

aviatophobia -- fear of flying.

AVM -- see arterial-venous malformation.

avoidance --
a person's tendency to minimize issues and a reluctance to deal with issues directly.

avoidance style -- a style of conflict resolution characterized by non-assertive and passive behavior; avoiders often withdraw from the conflict or change the subject.

avoidant -- refers to a style of attachment reflecting independence and a lack of emotional involvement.

avoidant adults -- adults who are somewhat uncomfortable being close to, trusting, and being dependent on others.

avoidant attachment -- pattern characterized by conspicuous avoidance of contact or interaction with the caregiver.

avuncular -- of or relating to an uncle; suggestive of an uncle in kindliness or geniality.

axillary -- armpit, underarm; the contents of the axilla include the axillary vein and artery, as well as the brachial plexus, lymph nodes, and fat.

axiomatic -- taken for granted; self-evident; based on or involving an axiom or system of axioms.

axon -- the long part of a neuron that is located at the cell base and sends messages to other neurons. They can be up to a meter long. There is just one
axon per neuron, but axons can subdivide to connect with many dendrites. Axons often build up a fatty white insulation called
myelin. (See illustration right
over there ----------->.)

azalea --
a type of flower.

Azkaban -- a wizarding prison (Harry Potter series, J. K. Rowling) located on an island in the North Sea. There are other wizarding prisons, such as
Nurmengard. Azkaban is guarded by dementors. Since 1717, using any of the three Unforgivable Curses on another human being has carried a punishment of
a life sentence in Azkaban. Here is what Remus Lupin said about Azkaban: "They don't need walls and water to keep the prisoners in, not when they're trapped
inside their own heads, incapable of a single cheerful thought. Most go mad within weeks."

azoth -- mythologized universal solvent; panacea.

AZT (zidovudine/azidothymidine) -- medical drug used to treat AIDS (also called retrovir).

azuline -- light blue; similar to a light blue.

azure -- sky blue or a light blue.
B     C    D    E    F    G    H    I    JKL    M     NO   PQ   
R   Sa--So   Sp--Sz  T  U--Z
Another real
thing! I am not
dead yet!  -- Keri
Hulme
"The White Girl" by
James McNeill
Whistler, indicative of
the Aesthetic
Movement in art.
The Aesir
descending the
Rainbow Bridge.
"The
Advocate"
by Thierry
Poncelet